MARIJUANA RESEARCH GETS SERIOUS
Eight states voted to legalize marijuana for medical or recreational use in 2016， putting the total number of states with some form of legal pot at 28. In states where it is legal， doctors already prescribe it for things like pain， depression， migraines and PTSD—but research has been limited by federal drag laws. A growing quorum of scientists is calling for legitimate research into marijuana’s potential as a form of medicine.
SUPERBUGS BECOME A SUPERTHREAT
In 2016， global， leaders promised to address the growing Issue of drug resistance—meaning bacteria that can no longer be treated with antibiotics—during a historic meeting at the U.N. headquarters in New York City. Major progress is yet to be seen， but companies like McDonald’s have vowed to phase out antibiotics in their chicken， and scientists are hunting for new drug compounds in places like caves and the oceans.
CRISPR TACKLES CANCER
CRISPR is the most hyped technology in medicine for good reason： it allows scientists to easily and inexpensively edit any place of DNA from nearly any species. Recently Chinese scientists have used CRISPR to treat a person with lung cancer. Meanwhile， U.S. scientists are working on the first human trials using CRISPR to treat cancer stateside—the first of what will surely be many studies like it.
CLIMATE CHANGE AS PUBLICHEALTH THREAT
Climate change and pollution are contributing to the spread of infectious disease， less nutritious food， asthma and dangerous heat waves. In response， the U.S. and other nations have committed to reducing greenhousegas emissions by as much as 28% below 2005 levels by 2025. It remains to be seen if Presidentelect Donald Tramp will honor that commitment， but scientists say the issue is only growing more critical.
36. Where is the passage probably taken from？
A. A magazine. B. A selfhelp book.
C. A brochure. D. A manual.
37. From the passage we know that__________.
A. Marijuana will surely be more widely prescribed by doctors for medical treatment in the U.S.
B. McDonald’s chicken treated with antibiotics has contributed to the spread of super Bacteria.
C. Chinese and U.S. scientists have made progress in using CRISPR technology to treat disease.
D. U.S. President will observe the commitment as climate change is threatening public health.
Early last year， the World Economic Forum issued a paper warning that technological change is on the edge of upending the global economy. To fill fee sophisticated jobs of tomorrow， the authors argued， the ‘reskilling and upskilling of today’s workers will be critical’. Around the same time， the then former president Barack Obama announced a ‘computer science for all’ programme for elementary and high schools in the United States. ‘We have to make sure all our kids are equipped for the jobs of the future， which means not just being able to work with computers but developing the analytical and coding skills to power our innovation economy，’ he said.
But the truth is， only a tiny percentage of people in the postindustrial world will ever end up working in software engineering， biotechnology or advanced manufacturing. Just as the huge machines of the industrial revolution made physical strength less necessary for humans， the information revolution frees us to complement， rather than compete with， the technical competence of computers. Many of the most important jobs of the future will require soft skills， not advanced algebra.
Back in 1983， the sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild invented the term ‘emotional labour’ to describe the processes involved in managing the emotional demands of work. She explored the techniques that flight attendants used to maintain the friendly manners their airline demanded in the face of abusive customers： taking deep breaths， silently reminding themselves to stay cool， or building empathy for the nasty（unfriendly） passenger. ‘I try to remember that if he’s drinking too much， he’s probably really scared of flying，’ one attendant explained. ‘I think to myself： “He’s like a little child.”’
Across the economy， technology is edging human workers into more emotional territory. In retail Amazon and its imitators are rapidly destroying the market for routine purchases， but to the extent that bricksandmortar （實体的） shops survive. It is because some people prefer chatting with a clerk to clicking buttons. Already， arguments for preserving rural post offices focus less on their services—handled mostly online—than on their value as centers for community social life.
In the field of medicine， one of the loudest moments of a physician’s job is sitting with a patient， surveying how a diagnosis will alter the landscape of that patient’s life. That is work no technology can match—unlike surgery， where autonomous robots are learning to perform with superhuman precision. With AI now being developed as a diagnostic tool， doctors have begun thinking about how to complement these automated skills. As a strategic report for Britain’s National Health Service （NHS） put it in 2013： ‘The NHS could employ hundreds of thousands of staff with the right technological skills， but without the compassion to care， then we will have failed to meet the needs of patients.’
A growing realworld demand for workers with empathy and a talent for making other people feel at ease requires a serious shift in perspective. It means moving away from our singular focus on academic performance as the road to success. It means giving more respect， and better pay， to workers too often genetically dismissed as ‘unskilled labour’. And， it means valuing skills more often found among workingclass women than highly educated men.
38. What can we know from the first two paragraphs？
A. President Obama launched a programme to develop people’s soft skills.
B. There is no need for people to continue developing technical skills.
C. Today’s workers have to update their skills to compete with machines.
D. Future jobs will require less physical strength but more soft skills.
39. The underlined word “empathy” in Paragraph 3 probably means the ability__________ .
A. to understand others
B. to forgive others
C. to respect others
D. to appreciate others
40. According to the passage， which work of the following jobs doesn’t involve managing emotional demands？
A. Software engineers. B. Flight attendants.
C. Shop clerks. D. Medical workers.
41. What is the author’s attitude towards emotional skills？
A. Critical. B. Unclear.
C. Favorable. D. Negative.
Although it might have happened anywhere， my encounter （meeting）with the green banana started on a steep mountain road in the interior of Brazil. My ancient jeep was staining up through spectacular countryside when the radiator （散熱器） began to leak ten miles from the nearest mechanic. The overheated engine forced me to stop at the next village， which consisted of a small store and scattering of houses. People gathered to look. Three fine streams of hot water spouted from holes in the jacket of the radiator. “That’s easy to fix，” a man said. He sent a boy running for some green bananas. He patted me on the shoulder， assuring me everything would work out “Green bananas，” he smiled. Everyone agreed.
We exchanged pleasantries while I thought over the effects of the green banana. Asking questions would betray my ignorance， so I remarked on the beauty of the place. Huge rock formations， like Sugar Loaf in Rio， rose up all around us. “Do you see that tall one right over there？” asked my benefactor （恩人）， pointing to a particular tall， slender pinnacle of dark rock. “That rock marks the center of the world.”
I looked to see if he was teasing me， but his face was serious. He in turn inspected me carefully to be sure I grasped the significance of his statement. The occasion demanded some show of recognition on my part. “The center of the world？” I repeated， trying to convey interest if not complete acceptance. He nodded. “The absolute center. Everyone around here knows it.”
At that moment the boy returned with my green banana. The man sliced one in half and pressed the cut end against the radiator jacket. The banana melted into a glue against the hot metal， plugging the leaks instantly. Everyone laughed at my astonishment. They refilled my radiator and gave me extra bananas to take along. An hour later， after one more application of green banana， my radiator and I readied our destination. The local mechanic smiled， “Who taught you about the green banana？” I named the village. “Did they show you the rock marking the center of the world？” he asked. I assured him they had. “My grandfather came from there，” he said. “The exact center. Everyone around here has always known about it.”
① As a product of American higher education， I had never paid the slightest attention to the green banana， except to regard it as a fruit whose time had not yet come. ② But as I reflected on it further， I realized that the green banana had been there all along. ③ Its time reached back to the very origins of the banana. ④ The people in that village had known about it for years. My own time had come in relation to it. This chance encounter showed me the special genius of those people， and the special potential of the green banana. I had been wondering for some time about those episodes of clarity which educators like to call “learning moments，” and knew I had just experienced two of them at once.
The importance of the rock marking the center of the world took a while to filter through. I had initially doubted their claim， knowing for a fact that the center was located somewhere in New England. After all， my grandfather had come from there. But gradually I realized they had a valid belief， a universal concept， and I agreed with them. We tend to define the center as that special place where we are known， where we know others， where things mean much to us， and where we ourselves have both identity and meaning： family， school， town， and local region.
The lesson which gradually filtered through was the simple concept that every place has special meanings for the people in it; every place represents the center of the world. The number of such centers is incalculable， and no one student or traveler can experience all of them， but once a conscious breakthrough to a second center is made， a lifelong perspective and collection can begin.
42. What is the best title for the passage？
A. A Car Accident
B. An Identity Issue
C. The Unforgettable Moment
D. The Green Banana
43. What can we infer from Paragraph 3？
A. The author was openminded enough to respect their wisdom and beliefs.
B. The author was polite trying not to show disagreement with the helper.
C. It occurred to the author that the center of the world would be the tall slender rock.
D. The author came to realize that every place has special meanings for the people in it.
44. Where could the following “Suddenly on that mountain road， its time and my need had met.” be best added in Paragraph 5？
A. ① B. ②
C. ③ D. ④
45. What is the author’s purpose of writing the passage？
A. To inspire people to rethink and redefine the center of the world in their eyes.
B. To illustrate that ignorance can sometimes be a blessing in disguise（偽装）.
C. To encourage people to discover something with special value and meaning.
D. To point out that traveling is a good way for people to search for their identity.
November 20， 1924
I think you have every kind of right to be proud of this book—The Great Gatsby （了不起的盖茨比）. It is an extraordinary book， suggestive of all sorts of thoughts and moods. You adopted exactly the right method of telling it， that of employing a narrator who is more of a spectator （旁观者） than an actor： this puts the reader upon a point of observation on a higher level than that on which the characters stand and at a distance that gives perspective.
I could go on praising the book， but points of criticism are more important now. I think you are right in feeling some looseness in chapters six and seven， and I don’t know how to suggest a remedy. I hardly doubt that you will find one and I am only writing to say that I think it does need something to hold up here to the pace set， and following. I have only two actual criticisms：
One is that among a set of characters marvelously （extraodinary） vivid and vital— I would know Tom Buchanan if I met him on the street and would avoid him —Gatsby is somewhat vague. The reader’s eyes can never quite focus upon him， his outlines are dim. This may be somewhat of an artistic intention， but I think it is mistaken. Couldn’t he be physically described as distinctly as the others， and couldn’t you add one or two characteristics like the use of that phrase “old sport”—not verbal， but physical ones， perhaps. I think that for some reason or other a reader gets an idea that Gatsby is a much older man than he is. But this would be avoided if on his first appearance he was seen as vividly as Daisy and Tom are， for instance—and I do not think your scheme would be weakened if you made him so.
The other point is also about Gatsby： his career must remain mysterious， of course. But in the end you make it pretty clear that his wealth came through his connection with Wolfsheim. Now almost all readers are going to be puzzled by his having all this wealth and demand an explanation. To give a distinct and definite one would be， of course， completely absurd. It did occur to me， though， that you might here and there insert some phrases， and possibly incidents that would suggest that he was in some active way mysteriously engaged. You do have him called on the telephone， but couldn’t he be seen once or twice consulting at his parties with people of some sort of mysterious significance， from the political， the gambling， the sporting world， or whatever it may be. If some sort of business activity of his were simply suggested， it would lend further probability to that part of the story.
There is one other point： in giving deliberately Gatsby’s biography， when he gives it to the narrator， you do withdraw from the method of the narrative in some degree， for otherwise almost everything is told， and beautifully told， in the regular flow of it. But you can’t avoid the biography altogether. I thought you might find ways to let the truth of some of his claims like his army career come out， bit by bit， in the course of actual narrative.
The general brilliant quality of the book makes me ashamed to make even these criticisms. The amount of meaning you get into a sentence， the dimensions and intensity of the impression you make a paragraph carry， are most extraordinary. It seems， in reading， a much shorter book than it is， but it carries the mind through a series of experiences that one would think would require a book of three times its length.
You once told me you were not a natural writer—my God！ You have plainly mastered the craft， of course; but you needed far more than craftsmanship（skill） for this.
As ever，—Maxwell E. Perkins
46. How many suggestions did Perkins offer in his letter？
A. Two. B. Three.
C. Four. D. Five.
47. By “I would know Tom Buchanan if I met him on the street and would avoid him，” Perkins intends to say__________.
A. he does not like Tom Buchanan
B. he has never met Tom Buchanan before
C. some characters in the book are described very well
D. Gatsby is mysterious compared to Tom Buchanan
48. It can be inferred from the passage that__________.
A. the method of telling the story disconnects readers from the book
B. Scott might deliberately describes Gatsby in an unclear way
C. a clear explanation will help readers understand Gatsby’s business
D. the book is too short for the amount of content delivered in it
49. What does “You have plainly mastered the craft， of course; but you needed far more than craftsmanship for this.” mean？
A. Scott is too modest about his talents.
B. Scott is a born talented writer.
C. Scott needs to improve his writing skills.
D. Scott has to better himself in other aspects.
50. In writing this letter， Perkins appears to be__________.
A. polite and straightforward
B. proud but insightful
C. modest and uncertain
D. sharp and definite