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高考英语作文写作要点

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2020/5/14

  一篇好文章至少要做到内容要点齐全,无遗漏信息点;语言地道高级;篇章结构要清晰,分段和过渡词要自然。写好作文要从写对句子开始,所以大家一定要写对各司其职的八大句子成分,写好万变不离其宗的五种基本句式,避免作文中出现常见的词汇类、语法类和汉语英语等三类错误。再次,使用高级表达增分,适当使用不落俗套的亮点词汇和整齐和谐的并列句,使用富有文采的状语从句和吸引眼球的定语从句,插入灵活好用的名词性从句,再加上言简意明的非谓语动词,使用彰显水平的强调句型、倒装句型和There be句型以及被动语态、虚拟语气、倍数和比较句型等。最后写好主题句和拓展句,注意各种文体写作的基本特征,加上完美的誊写。如此写作,一定会使文章读起来抑扬顿挫,让考生深厚的语言功底得以体现,阅卷老师一定会毫不犹豫地将你的作文定位于五档。
  一、使用亮点词汇
  使用亮点词汇,就要“语”众不同,避免人云亦云;更新换代,避免重复;单词与短语巧妙互换;尝试用高年级学到的词汇代替低年级学到的词汇。如:
  1. Of the two, I think the latter is the better.
  →Of the two, the latter wins my favor.
  2. So long as we hold fast to our ideals and never give up, we are sure to achieve success.
  →So long as we hold fast to our ideals and never give up, we are bound to achieve success.
   二、灵活使用各种句型,如状语从句、定语从句、名词性从句,避免头重脚轻的it句式
  状语从句主要包括时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、比较、方式、目的和结果九类从句。如:
   (2017·天津高考书面表达)   While it has been more than a year since you taught us English, I’ve missed you a lot.
  盡管你教我们英语才一年多,我真的很想念您。
  定语从句的正确使用能够反映出考生对于语言是否具有较高的掌握能力,所以建议考生一定要在写作中至少使用一个恰到好处的定语从句。如:
   (2018·全国卷Ⅱ书面表达)   As we all know, the outstanding English short film, Growing Together, is interesting to watch.
  我们都知道,《一起成长》这部优秀的英文短片看起来很有趣。
  名词性从句是高中阶段重要的语法项目之一,也是写作中常用的高级表达。它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。在写作中,如果我们能够把两个简单句合并为一个含有名词性从句的复合句,或者把一个简单句扩展成为含有名词性从句的复合句,对写作都是一种质的升华。如:
  1. In addition, what may interest you most is that I am really nervous and upset when taking the exam. 另外,可能最使你感兴趣的是,考试时我真的既紧张又烦躁。
  2. Most people hold the belief that education can change one’s fate. 多数人持有这样的观点,教育能改变人的命运。
  it除了用作人称代词外,还常用作形式主语或形式宾语,有时也可以用在一些固定句型中。灵活地运用it句式可使文章更高级,结构更紧凑。如:
  1) This book is so well written. It is no wonder that it’s so popular worldwide. 这本书写得如此好,难怪它在全世界那么受欢迎。
  2) Therefore, it goes without saying that it is this motto that brings me motivation and encouragement. 因此,不用说,就是这句箴言给我带来了动力和鼓励。
  3) It is universally acknowledged / It is well known that learning English well will be of great benefit to us all. 众所周知,学好英语对我们大家都大有益处。
  4) I’d appreciate it if you don’t tell anybody about this. 这件事你不说出去的话,我会感激不尽。
  5) When it comes to the season I like best, spring will always occur to me in no time.
   (2016·四川高考书面表达)   当谈到我最喜欢的季节,我会立刻想到春天。
   三、妙用言简意明的非谓语动词,彰显水平的强调句型、倒装句型和There be句型
  众所周知,文章中出现过多的简单句会让人觉得单调乏味,句子与句子之间的关系显得松散;而文章中过多地出现复合句又显得累赘,读起来费劲。而恰当地运用非谓语动词对简单句和复合句进行转换,不仅显得句式多样,句子活泼,而且读起来结构紧凑,言简意明。

如:
  1. 下面两个简单句。
  In the newspaper of our school there is a column called “Foreign Culture”.
  It aims to introduce American customs and the life of high school students.
  →In the newspaper of our school there is a column called “Foreign Culture”, aiming to introduce American customs  and the life of high school students.
  2. The boys were making the most of time. They wanted to finish the work earlier.
  →The boys were making the most of time so as to finish the work earlier. (用不定式作目的状语)
  3. Since you have realized that your time is limited, you’ll have to study for your goals without anger or hesitation.
  →Having realized that your time is limited, you’ll have to study for your goals without anger or hesitation.
  4. There is clear evidence that children who take music lessons develop a better memory compared with those who have no musical training. 有明顯的证据表明,与那些没受过音乐训练的孩子相比,上音乐课的孩子有更好的记忆力。
  5. A bus full of passengers was reported to have gone out of control on a highway south of the city. 据报道,一辆满载乘客的公共汽车在市南的一条公路上失去了控制。
  6. In the picture, a boy in worn clothes sits beside a wooden table with a pile of bamboo books on it. 在画中,一个穿着破旧衣服的男孩坐在木桌旁边,桌上有一堆书简。
  7.   (2017·浙江高考应用文写作)   It is because it’s a good chance for you to learn the natural knowledge of China and make new friends that we really wish you can join us. 正是因为这是你学习中国的自然知识和结交新朋友的好机会,我们真的希望你能加入我们。
  8. It was not until all the fish in the river died out that the villagers realized how serious the pollution is. 直到河里所有的鱼都死光了,村民们才意识到污染是多么严重。
  9.   (2018·北京高考书面表达)   We do hope there will be more meaningful activities in the coming future. 我们确实希望今后有更多有意义的活动。
  10.   (2018·全国卷Ⅰ书面表达)   Only when you come to China can you experience Chinese food cultures. 只有来到中国,你才能体验中国的饮食文化。
  11.   (2018·天津高考书面表达)   So interested in the competition are some of my classmates and I that we have formed a group to take part in it. 我和我的一些同学对比赛非常感兴趣,以至于我们组织了一个小组来参加比赛。
  12.   (2017·浙江6月高考写作)   At eight on the morning of October 1, we are to gather at the gate of Orient Hotel, and there will be a minibus waiting for us. 十月一日上午八点,我们将在东方宾馆门口集合,将有一辆小型公共汽车等着我们。
  13. There is no denying that more and more plastics will come into use in our daily life. 不可否认的是,越来越多的塑料将用于我们的日常生活中。
  14.   (2018·北京高考书面表达)   There is no doubt that you should learn some basic Chinese in advance. 毫无疑问,你应当提前学习一些基本的汉语。

  四、用途各异的被动语态、委婉动听的虚拟语气、倍数和比较句型
  被动语态、虚拟语气、倍数和比较等句型在写作中都属于高级句式,它们的合理运用都能给文章增色添彩。如:
  1. To enlarge vocabulary, we should read more native materials.
  →To enlarge vocabulary, more native materials should be read.
  2. Without your help, I couldn’t have won first place in the English Speaking Competition. 要是没有你的帮助,我不可能在英语演讲比赛中获得第一名。
  3. After the new technique was introduced, the production of cars this year is twice as much as that of last year. 引进新技术后,今年汽车的产量是去年的两倍。
  4. As for wild release and controled release, I prefer the latter one to the former one.  对于自由分享和定向分享,我喜欢后者胜过前者。
  注意:在使用高级句式和复杂结构时,要注意分寸,应根据书面表達的内容和篇章结构而定,做到长短句结合,地道得体,千万不能生搬硬套,画蛇添足。
  五、词顺意畅的衔接
  衔接与过渡性词语的使用是语言连贯性得以实现的最常用手段。没有这些词语则文章显得松散,语义无法有效地衔接。因此,为了使行文流畅,上下文语义连贯,在句与句之间,段与段之间恰当地使用一些承上启下的连接 (过渡) 性词语是非常必要的。表示起始关系的过渡性词语有:above all, to begin / start with, today, now, nowadays, at present, currently, recently,  generally speaking, according to, with the development of...等;表示时间顺序的过渡性词语有:firstly, first of all, to begin / start with, then, later, in the end, finally, at last, after that, afterwards, since then, immediately, suddenly, meanwhile等;表示并列关系的过渡性词语有:and, or,  also, as well as, neither... nor..., not only...but also..., either...or..., not...but...等;表示转折关系的过渡性词语有:but, yet, however, while, otherwise, on the contrary, though, although, even if / though, despite, in spite of, regardless of等;表示因果关系的过渡性词语有:because, as, since, for, thanks to, due to, as a result of, so, therefore, as a result / consequence等;表示递进关系的过渡性词语有:what’s more, furthermore, moreover, besides, what’s worse, still less, to make matters worse, worse still, on the one hand...on the other hand..., for one thing...for another thing...等;表示列举事实的过渡性词语有:such as, for example / instance, take... for example, that is to say, as follows, in  other words等;表示观点的过渡性词语有:in my opinion, in my view, from my point of view, as far as I am concerned, as for me, personally等;表示总结的过渡性词语有:in short, in brief, in conclusion, in a / one word,  to sum up, all in all, on the whole, in general等。
  如下面短文中过渡性词语above all, besides, meanwhile, for one thing, for another thing, personally, in a word, recently的使用。
  Recently, it has been a great public concern that the students lack selfprotection awareness.
  There is a lack of social experience among students and therefore learning how to protect ourselves is of great significance to us all. For one thing, security comes first. Without security, we can achieve nothing and cannot live up to parents’ expectations. For another thing, protecting ourselves contributes to the healthy development of the students, which is associated with the happiness of every family. Meanwhile, it also  helps to build a more harmonious society.
  Personally, in order to protect us students, above all, we should strengthen our security awareness. Besides, when accidents occur, we should calm down and turn to teachers or parents for help. The government also plays a leading role in protecting students. In a word, only by the combined efforts of every side involved can we live and study in harmony.
   (作者:毛春霞,江苏省泰州市第三高级中学)

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