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同位语从句和定语从句的区别

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2014/12/22

同位语从句和定语从句的区别
同位语从句和定语从句一样通常都放在由名词充当的先行词后面, 且其先行词和关联词特点与定语从句先行词及关联词特点十分相似,极易混淆,不过两者的区别还是十分明显的。

         1. 从句性质不同

同位语从句属于名词性从句,是用来进一步解释或补充说明前面的名词;而定语从句是用来说明先行词的性质或特征,起修饰或限制的作用,与先行词的关系是修饰与被修饰的关系,从句相当于形容词。

例1:The plan that you will go there next week has to be changed.你准备下周去那里的计划得改变.

析:认真分析语境含义及句子结构可知,从句为The plan的具体内容,因此该句为同位语从句。

例2:The news that he told me was false.他告诉我的消息是假的。

析:认真分析语境含义和句子结构可知,从句是用来修饰The news的, 因此该句为定语从句。

         2.关联词作用不同

定语从句的关联词在从句中作主语、宾语、时间状语、地点状语和原因状语等,而同位语从句的关联词在从句中不担任成分。

例1:The plan that I”ll stay there for a week can”t come true.我要在那儿呆一周的计划不能实现。

析:分析句子成分可知,that在从句中不作任何成分,因此该句为同位语从句。

例2:The plan that he raised was reasonable.他提出的计划合理。

析:that在从句中作宾语,因此该句为定语从句。

         3.同位语从句先行词不同

同位语从句的先行词就是被同位语从句修饰的名词,因为它和同位语从句在内容上相同,因此常为一些体现一定内容的名词,如:hope, plan, fact, news, problem, truth, idea, information等,此时同位语从句具体介绍这些名词的内容。同位语从句的先行词虽然体现同位语从句的内容,但在同位语从句中并不充当成分。          


        4.同位语从句前面的名词比较固定,一般是NEWS,FACT,IDEA,OPINION等,用THAT引导,THAT从句是对前面名词内容的解释.
The news that the boss will return next Saturday is true.
名词是消息,消息的内容是老板下周六回来.
The idea that he may tell lies struck me.
名词是想法,想法的内容是他也许说谎.

定于从句的基本结构是:先行词+关系词引导的从句.关系词分为:关系代词,关系副词.关系词引导的从句是对先行词的修饰说明,一般可翻译为"...的".
The news that struck everybody was true.
先行词是消息,什么样的消息呢?是让每个人都吃惊的消息.此时就为定语从句了.                                               

            5.同位语从句与定语从句的区别
同位语从句与定语从句的区别 
 1、同位语从句与前面的名词是同位关系,即说明它前面名词的内容;而定语从句与前面的名词是修饰与被修饰关系,即限定它前面的名词范围,或补充一些情况。如:   The news that l hove passed the exam is true.我通过了考试这一消息是真的。   (同位语从句,即从句所表达的意思就是前面名词的内容。)   The news that he told me just now is true.他刚才告诉我的消息是真的。   (定语从句,从句对前面名词起修饰限制作用,即“他告诉我的”那个消息,而不是别的消息。)  
2、引导同位语从句的that是连词,在从句中不充当任何成份,而引导定语从句的that是关系代词,除起连接作用外,还在从句中充当主语、宾语或表语等。如:   The idea that computers can recognize human voices surprises many people.   计算机能够识别人的声音的想法使许多人感到惊奇。  (that在从句中不充当任何成份。)   The idea that he gave surprises many people.  他提出的观点令许多人感到吃惊。   (that在从句中作gave的宾语。)
                               

         6.    同位语从句和定语从句的区别   同位语从句和定语从句的区别 同位语从句和定语从句的区别

一、从语法功能和概念上辨别
  定语从句是形容词性的从句,是对前面名词的性质、特征进行描述,它与先行词(前面的名词)是修饰与被修饰的关系:而同位语从句是名词性从句,是对前面名词作进一步的补充性解释说明,它与前面的名词是同位关系,即前面名词是从句的概括总结,从句是前面名词的具体内容,且名词与该同位语从句有逻辑上的主表关系。如:
  ①.I will tell you piece of news   that you may not have heard.
  ②.The news   that he had won the first prize in the competition   made us very happy.
 ①句中的 that 从句是对 news 起修饰和限定作用的,所以该句为定语从句。②句中的 that 从句是对 news 的内容做解释说明,且 news 与 that 从句在逻辑上是主表关系,可以说 The news was that he had won the first prize in the competition. 所以该句为同位语从句。
  二、从先行词上辨别
  定语从句的先行词没有限定,举不胜举:而同位语从句的先行词仅限于具有一定内容的抽象名词,如: idea (想法,主意)、 news (消息)、 answer (答复)、 fact (事实)、 hope (希望)、 thought (想法)、 belief (信仰)、 message (信息)、 possibility (可能性)等。
  三、从引导词上辨别
  引导定语从句的 that 为关系代词,在从句中充当主语或宾语,指物时可用 which
替换,当它在定语从句中做宾语时可以省略;而引导同位语从句的 that 为连词,在从句中不充当任何成分,但不可以省略,且不能用 which 代替。如:
  1.The news   (that/which)he told me yesterday   is not true. (定语从句)
 2.The news   that he will go to Beijing   is not true. (同位语从句)
 3.At the meeting he expressed the hope   (that/which)we wanted to express.   (定语从句)
 4.At the meeting he expressed the hope   that he wanted to go abroad to further study.   (同位语从句)
  四、从语气上辨别
  从句位于少数几个名词,如 suggestion,advice,order,request 等后时,同位语从句的谓语动词必须用虚拟语气,既 should +动词原形, should可以省略;而定语从句则没有这一要求。如:
 The advice   that we (should) build a school in that small village   was supported by all of us. (同位语从句)
 The advice   that he gave   was supported by all of us. (定语从句)
                                
                                                      7.同位语从句与定语从句
问题 >> 同位语从名与定语从名的区别↓


定语从句与同位语从句的区别

定语从句与同位语从句是高中英语教学内容的重点,也是英语阅读中的难点,它们相似的位置,使许多学生往往混淆,阻碍了对文章的理解。那么,如何正确地区分定语从句与同位语从句呢?


一、 定语从句是形容词从句,其作用相当于一个形容词,是用来修饰前面的名词或代词的;同位语从句是名词从句,其作用相当于一个名词,是对前面的名词作进一步解释的。例如:


1. We heard the news that he had told her. 我们听到他对她说的消息。


2. We heard the news that he had won the game. 我们听到消息他赢得了比赛。


例1中的that从句的作用相当于一个形容词,其作用是修饰the news;例2中的that从句的作用相当于一个名词,是对the news的进一步说明。


二、定语从句的引导词在从句中充当一定的成分,可作主语、宾语、状语等;而同位语从句中的引导词在从句只起连接作用,不作任何句子成分。例如:


1. A plane is a machine that can fly.


飞机是一种能飞的机器。


2. The fact that they didn't finish the work has to be faced. 必须面对事实,他们没有完成工作。


例1中的引导词that在从句中充当句子成分,作从句的主语,故为定语从句;例2中的that只起连接作用,引导从句解释fact的内容,不作任何句子成分,故为同位语从句。


三、引导定语从句的关联词在从句中作宾语或状语时,可以省略或被其他词代替;而同位语从句的引导词一般不能省略,更不能被代替。例如:


1. The news that she heard is true. 她听到的消息是真的。


2. The news that she will go abroad is true. 她将出国这消息是真的。


例1是定语从句,that可省略;例2是同位语从句,that不能省略。


3. The reason why he was chosen remains unknown. 他为什么被选上的原因还是不清楚。


4. The idea why he was chosen attracted our attention. 他为什么会被选上,这一想法引起我们的注意。


例3中why引导的是定语从句,why可以被 for which或 that 代替;例4中 why引导的是同位语从句,why 不能省去,也不能被其它词代替。


四、同位语从句与其所修饰的名词之间是一种同位关系,二者之间存在逻辑上的系表关系,可用“主+系+表”结构来表示。例如:


The news that he won the first place is true. 他赢得冠军的那个消息是真的。


上句若用“主+系+表”结构来表示,则是:


The news is that he won the first place. 消息是他赢得了冠军。


意思合理,系表结构成立,故为同位语从句。


五、定语从句所修饰、限定的先行词可以是各类名词,可以有复数形式;而同位语从句一般都与抽象名词同位,一般没有复数形式。例如:


1. The possibilities that she was offered seemed very great.她得到的可能性似乎大些。


2. Her mother was worried about the possibility that her daughter dislike to go to school. 她的母亲很担心,她女儿有可能不喜欢上学。


例1中的possibilities是定语从句的先行词,可用复数形式;例2中的possibility是抽象名词,后接的是同位语从句,一般不用复数形式。


六、由when, why, where引导的定语从句分别修饰或说明表示时间、原因或地点的词,但它们引导的同位语从句一般不和表示时间或地点的词同位。例如:


1. I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing. 我仍然记得初次来北京的那天。


2. I have no idea when she will be back. 我不知道她何时回来。


3. This is the house where I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住的房子。


4. The question where we shall have a meeting hasn't decided. 我们到什么地方去开会,这个问题没有决定。


例1、3中的when和 where引导的是定语从句,day 和house分别表示时间和地点;例2、4中的when和 where引导的是同位语从句。


如果在定语从句与同位语从句的学习中能把握住上述几种区别,那么在阅读文章时,就会迎刃而解,收到更好的效果。
           www.ryedu.net                                                 

8.同位语从句和定语从句的区别

同位语从句和定语从句很相似,但还是有区别的,区别主要在以下三方面
一.从词类上区别
同位语从句前面的名词只能是:idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise, order等有一定内涵的名词.而定语从句的先行词可以是名词,代词,主句的一部分或是整个主句.如:
1)News has reached us that he was admitted into Beijing University.
我们得到消息说他被北大录取 (同位语从句)
2)The news he told us is not true.
他告诉我们的消息是不真实的.(定语从句)
[高考回放]
1).Nobody believed his reason for being absent form the class_____ he had to meet his uncle at the air port.(06重庆)
A. why B. that  C. where D. because
[赏析]:答案B. 该题易误选A, 误以为是why 引导的定语从句。但仔细分析可以看出这里the reason 已与“for being absent form the class”搭配,即“缺课的原因”故为他that引导的同位语从句,具体解释说明his reason.
二. 从性质上区别
定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴。如:
1.Do you know the fact that he was diagnosed with cancer?
你知道他被诊断患有癌症这个事实吗
(同位语从句,补充说明promise具体内容.)
2.These are the facts he collected about her crime
这些便是他收集关于他犯罪的证据
(定语从句,facts在从句中作collected的宾语.)
[高考回放]
1).(06天津)There is much chance _____ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race.
A. that B. which C. until D. if
[赏析]:答案A. that 是引导词,引出同位语从句,具体解释说明 chance 的内容。
2).(’02上海春季)Is this the reason _____at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A .he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained
[赏析]:答案A 为定语从句,关系代词that/which 被省略了。
三. 从引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别
有些引导词如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句.如:
1.That question whether we need it has not been considered.
我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑.(同位语从句)
2.I have no idea what has happened to him.
我不知道他发生了什么事.(同位语从句)
引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略.that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成分,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替.如:
3.The order that we should send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday.
我们应派几个人去帮别的几个小组的命令昨天收到了.
(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成分,但不能省略..)
4.The order that we received yesterday was that we should send a few people to help the other groups. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该派几个人去帮助别的几个小组.
(定语从句,是名词order的修饰语,that在从句中作received的宾语,可以省略.)
[高考回放]
1). (06安徽)A warm thought suddenly came to me ____ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother's birthday.安徽
A. if B. when C. that D. which
[赏析]:答案C. that引导同位语从句,具体解释说明thought 的具体内容,
2)(06江苏). The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running, ______ meant spending tens of thousands of pounds.
A. who B. that C. as D. which
[赏析]答案D. which 引导非限定性定语从句,指“The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running”这件事。
强化练习:
1. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas.( 04上海春招)
A. which B. that C. what D. whether
2. Luckily, we'd brought a road map without ____ we would have lost our way. (04北京春招)
A. it B. that C. this D. which
3.. We're just trying to reach a point ____ both sides will sit down together and talk.(06山东)
A. where B. that C. when D. which
4.. The Beatles,______ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool(06天津)
A. what B. that C. how D. as
5.——Do you have anything to say for yourselves?(06江西)
——Yes, that's one point——we must insist on.
A. why B. where C. how D./
6.1. Women _______ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ________ don't.(06北京)
A. who ; 不填 B. 不填 ; who C. who ; who D. 不填表; 不填
7..-It's thirty years since we last met.(06四川)
-But I still remember the story, believe it or not, ____ we got lost on a rainy night.
A. which B. that C. what D. when
8. She was educated at Beijing University,________ She went on to have her advanced study abroad.(06陕西)
A. after which B. from which
C. from that D. after that
9.Anyway ,that evening, _____I ’ll tell you more about later, I ended up staying at Rachel’s place(’04浙江)
A .when B. where C. what D. which
10.York, ___ last year, is nice old city.(’03北京)
A .that I visited B. which I visited C. where I visited D. in which I visited
参考答案:
1-5BDAAD6-10 C DADB                                        


 9.
同位语从句与定语从句的区别
同位语从句一般是跟在一个名词(fact , idea ,news等)的后面,对其进一步说明。同位语从具由that 引导,但随着与其同位的名次的不同,也可由whether,when,where ,how等引导。
定语从句是用来修饰、限制名词或代词的从句。一般由关系代词who, whom, whose, which, that, as等以及关系副词when, where, why等引导。
这两种从句的主要区别在于:
1、        从意义上讲,前者对名词加以补充说明,后者对名词或代词进行修饰和限定。
2、        从结果上讲,前者有连词引导,后者由关系代词和关系副词引导。
3、        从内涵上讲,前者所说明的名词与从句没有逻辑上的关系,后者所限定的名次是从句的主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。例如:
The news that we won the match is true. (同位语从句)
The news that you told us yesterday is true. (定语从句)
4、        引导同位语从句的连词不可省略,而引导定语从句的关系代词作宾语时常可省略。
5、        同位语从句说明的名词大都是抽象名词,而定语从句所修饰、限定的名词没有限制。
练习题:
1、        You have no idea _____ those days.
A.   that we were how busy
B.   how busy were we
C.   that how we were busy
D.   how busy we were
2. He put forward a good idea ________ gave us hope.
A. that   B. what   C. that what   D. /
3. It remains a question __________ we can get so much money in such a short time.
A. how    B. that    C. when   D. what
4. Have you thought of a situation ______ this idiom can be used?
   A. when    B. where    C. which   D. /
5. The city plans to build a park ____ there used to be a lake.
   A. where   B. that    C. near which D. which
答案:DAABA

初中英语复习:定语从句
定语从句与名词性从句
高考定语从句易错题精选
高考英语语法:定语从句
定语从句专题专练

同位语从句和定语从句的区别:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/201412/41354.html