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从句中的虚拟语气

作者:卜继琴    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2009/8/28
虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的某种假设、愿望、怀疑、猜测、建议等。虚拟语气表示一种不能实现的假设。该语法主要用于if条件状语从句,也可用于主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句等。
  
  一、主语从句中的虚拟语气
  
  1.It be+形容词+that...(should)...
  it作形式主语,后面用形容词作表语,当描述主语的表语形容词是advisable,critical,crucial,desirable,essential,imperative,important,incre-dible,inevitable,necessary,recommend,strange,urgent等形容词时,主语从句的谓语动词多用虚拟语气。如果是现在时,谓语动词用should/would+动词原形(should/would经常省略);如果是过去时,则用should/would+have done的形式。例如:
  It’s important that we should take good care of the patient.
  重要的是我们要照顾好病人。
  It’s necessary that we should have a walk now.
  我们有必要出去散散步。
  It’s natural that she should do so.
  她这样做是很自然的。
  2.It be+过去分词+that...(should)...
  用于该结构中的过去分词往往表示“建议、请求、命令”的意思,有desired,suggested,requested,ordered,proposed等。例如:
  It was suggested that English should be the only language spoken in the European Parliament.
  有人建议欧洲议会只使用英语
  3.It is time(about time,high time) that...(过去式动词形式或should+动词原形)...例如:
  It’s already 5 o’clock now.Don’t you think it’s about time we went home?
  现在已经5点钟了,你不认为我们应该回家了吗?
  
  二、宾语从句中的虚拟语气
  
  虚拟语气用在宾语从句中,动词wish,suggest,order,insist,propose等后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气,宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望、要求。
  1.wish后面宾语从句中的虚拟语气
  注意:与哪个事实相反,不能以主句的时态为判断依据,而是要根据从句的意思判断。例如:
  I wish she would be on my side.
  我希望她能站在我一边。
  2.表示“要求、建议、命令”等动词后面的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
  用于此结构的动词有:suggest,advise,assume,decide,demand,desire,insist,propose,order,recommend,require,suggest等。其格式很固定:谓语动词用should+动词原形,should可以省略。注意这种句型中的虚拟语气形式不受主句动词时态的影响(这一点有别于陈述语气的宾语从句)。例如:
  The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class.
  老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。
  He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by them-selves.
  他要求学生每周要自己洗衣服。
  注意:当insist表示“坚持认为”,suggest表示“表明、显示”时,不用虚拟语气。例如:
  The look on his face sugggested that he was quite satisfied with what I had done for him.
  He insisted that he was honest.
  3.would rather+从句
  在这种结构中,从句的谓语动词用过去形式表示虚拟。例如:
  I would rather he went right now.我宁愿他马上走。
  
  三、表语从句、同位语从句中的虚拟语气
  
  suggestion,proposal,order,plan,idea,advice,decision等需要有内涵的名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句,要使用虚拟语气,其谓语动词应用should+动词原形,联接从句的that不能省略。例如:
  My suggestion is that we (should) send a few soldiers to help them.
  我的建议是我们应派几个战士去增援他们。
  My advice is that you (should) treat her well.
  我的忠告是你应该善待她。
  He makes the demand that she (should) leave the place at once.
  他提出一个要求,要求她立刻离开这个地方。
  
  四、虚拟语气用在状语从句中
  
  1.虚拟语气用于表示条件的状语从句中,一般称为虚拟条件句
  (1)与现在事实相反的条件从句和结果从句
  If I(we,you,he,they)+动词过去式/If I(he,she) were...I(we) should+动词原形/He(you,they) would+动词原形。例如:
  If I were you,I should buy it.
  如果我是你,我就买了它。
  If I had time,I would study French.
  如果我有时间,我会学习法语的。
  If she knew English,she would not ask me for help.
  如果她懂英语的话,她不会找我帮忙的。
  (2)与过去事实相反的条件从句、结果从句
  If I(we,you,he,they)+had+过去分词,I(we) should+have+过去分词/he(you,they) would+have+过去分词。例如:
  If you had got up earlier,you could have caught the train.
  如果你早一点起床,你就会赶上火车了。
  2.虚拟语气在状语从句中,除了可以表示条件、结果外,还可以表示比较、目的等
  (1)as if和as though引导的比较状语从句
  此时从句所表达的内容与实际情况相反或者是一种假设。例如:
  They talked as if they had been friends for years.
  他们谈起话来似乎是多年的朋友。
  I remember the event as if it happened yesterday.
  我记得这件事,就好像它是昨天发生似的。
  (2)in order that和so that引导的目的状语从句
  此时谓语动词多用may/might或can/could后加动词原形,表示虚拟。而在lest,for fear that和in case that等引导的目的状语从句中,谓语动词多用should后加动词原形,表示虚拟(should经常被省略)。例如:
  She stayed at home for a few days so that she could take care of her mother.
  她在家里呆了好几天,以便能照顾她妈妈。
  The teacher spoke slowly in order that all the students might/could hear him clearly.
  老师讲得很慢,为的是让每个学生都能听清楚。
  The driver looked over the engine carefully lest it should go wrong on the way.
  司机仔细检查了发动机,以防在路上出毛病。
  注意:(1)有时表示虚拟语气的条件从句或者主句都可以省略,而只剩下一个主句或者一个条件从句。例如:
  If I had time.
  我要有时间该多好啊。
  If he had much more money.
  如果他有更多的钱就能……
  (2)虚拟语气中,条件从句的动词动作可以和主句的动词动作时态不一致。例如:
  If they had studied hard,they could do it easily now.
  如果他们以前努力学习的话,现在干的就会容易些。
  If he had not taken my advice,he wouldn’t do it much better like this.
  如果他不听取我的建议,他就不会干得这样好 高考虚拟语气的归纳
高中英语语法:虚拟语气
高考英语从句考点
虚拟语气常见错误
虚拟语气的用法

从句中的虚拟语气:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200908/14005.html
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