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高考英语从句考查

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2009/2/27

高考英语考点提示
从句考查在高考单项填空中的份量究竟多大?全国18套试题中,2005年考查从句46小题,2006年42小题,2007年47小题,平均每套试题3小题考查从句的用法。可见,在备战高考的英语学习中,从句学习是重中之重。
2007年考题对主语从句﹑宾语从句﹑表语从句的考查题量分别为4﹑4﹑3,其中6小题是以what引导的名词从句。定语从句共考了16小题,8小题含有关系代词which。而20个状语从句,条件状语从句就占5个。何为重点,一目了然。对比近几年的从句类试题,发现其考点覆盖面广,难度起伏不很明显。预计在“难度相对稳定”思想指导下的2008考题,不会让考生产生两级感觉。

※ 解题钥匙
【例1】(2007•陕西)8.        parents say and do has a life-long effect on their children.
A. That    B. Which        C. What    D. As
【解析】整句为陈述句,has为谓语动词,前面的主语从句缺少宾语,所以选C。A、B项前缺先行词不能构成定语从句,as却构成本句不需要的定语从句。
【答案】C
【例2】(2007•山东)22.Could I speak to         is in charge of International Sales, please?
A.anyone        B.someone       C.whoever       D.no matter who
【解析】to后是宾语从句,宾语从句缺主语,whoever能担当此任。选A﹑B项有了先行词,少了关系代词。D项只能引导让步状语从句。
【答案】C

规律小结
①从句就是作用相当于一个词或短语,表意更全面更丰富的句子。从句从属于主句,大多由连接词和主句连接。在主句中作用相当于一个名词的叫名词从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句),相当于形容词的叫定语从句,相当于副词的叫状语从句。
②引导名词从句的连接词主要有三类:从属连词that、whether、if和只连接表语从句的as if〔though〕,连接代词what、whatever、which、whichever、who、whoever、whom、whomever、whose、whosever,连接副词when、whenever、where、wherever、why、whyever、how soon、how often、how many、how much、how long、how far。一般说来,一个名词从句处于主句中什么成分位置便是什么从句。
③whether相关用法:whether除不能引导否定宾语从句外,可引导其他所有名词从句,在不定式前、discuss后、介词后、与or not直接连用都要用whether,不用if。doubt用于否定﹑疑问句需连用that从句,用于肯定句需连用if﹝whether﹞从句。另外句式,I'm sure that……, I'm not sure if﹝whether﹞……。
④同位语从句实质上是特殊的定语从句,对前面的名词﹑代词补充说明,可用that﹑wh-结构词连接,连接词不省。
【例3】(2007•辽宁)24. Eric received training in computer for one year, ______ he found a job in a big company.
A. after that       B. after which       C. after it          D. after this
【解析】此题考查“介词+which”引导的定语从句用法,有一定难度。原句﹦Eric received training in computer for one year and after that he found a job in a big company,所以很多学生误选after that。将该并列句转化为含定语从句的主从复合句时,需去掉and,再把that变成which,这是定语从句的基本要求。学生受汉语句式“句子……,句子……,句子……”的潜在影响,也是做错此题的另一重要原因。
【答案】B

规律小结
①一个完整的句子,将其作某种成份的一个名词或代词提前至句首,该词就变成了先行词,然后,根据定语从句的要求加上一个恰当的关系代词或关系副词,这样便转化成定语从句。由此可见,定语从句的先行词一定在从句中充任某种成份,关系词的选择由它在从句中充任的成份和定语从句使用的某些约定所决定。关系词选择的关键是,将先行词后移能构成结构完整句意通达的独立句子。表示时间﹑地点﹑原因的先行词作定语从句的主语﹑宾语时,关系词必须用that或which,只有作状语时才用when﹑where﹑why或与此等效的“适当介词+which”结构。
②当先行词为下列情况之一时关系代词只用that:all﹑few﹑little﹑much﹑none﹑some等+〔名词〕;形容词最高级﹑序数词+〔名词〕;人+物;every﹑no﹑any﹑just﹑only﹑very﹑right等+名词;疑问词。当主句是以who﹑which开头的特殊疑问句时,后面出现的定语从句用that引导。
③as和which引导非限制性定语从句时的主要区别:as从句仅置于句首,which从句可位于句首﹑句中或句尾。as从句只指代整句概念,which从句可指代整句概念或单个先行词。主句所述情况在意料之中,用as; 主句所述情况无论是否出乎意料,无论是否产生不良后果,均用which。As从句的内在含义为“正如……”,常和be known〔reported, announced, expected, shown……〕连用;which从句多为对某人的性质﹑身份﹑特征的说明,或是对主句所述情况所产生结果的补述。as常和the same﹑such﹑so等连用,the same……as……指同类人或物,the same……that……指同一个人或物。
④特殊定语从句:出于结构平衡和表意明确的需要,先行词与关系词之间被介词短语﹑同位语﹑谓语等分隔开来,形成分隔式定语从句。在关系词和从句谓语之间插入一个插入语,如I think﹑you think,形成插入式定语从句。两个以上的定语从句同时修饰一个先行词,形成多重定语从句。在上述情况下,准确定位先行词则显得尤为重要。另外,有时可以用“介词+关系代词+不定式”这种省略式定语从句,使表达更精炼,其可以转化成相应的完整定语从句。
【例4】(2007•湖南)33. Most birds find it safe to sleep in the trees, but ________ they have eggs or young chicks, they don’t use a nest.
A. why           B. how            C. unless          D. where
【解析】句意:多数鸟类发现在树上睡觉很安全,只有在产卵或产仔时才搭巢。选C项唯一依据是句意要求。做单选题时,不少的情况下,无需对比词义区别,明了句意要求就够了!
【答案】C

规律小结
①掌握引导各种状语从句的从属连词及其基本用法。表示时间:before, after; since, till〔until〕; as, when, while, the first time, each〔every〕time; once, as soon as, no sooner…than…, hardly…when…。表示时间:where, wherever。表示原因:because, for, since, as, now that,注意其语气强弱和位置关系。表示结果:so…that,such…that,that。表示条件:if, as〔so〕far as, as〔so〕long as, once, on condition that, providing〔provided〕(that),that, in case, suppose〔supposing〕, unless。表示目的:for fear that, in case, in order that, lest, so that, that。表示让步:as, even if, even though, though, although, no matter wh-,ever, whether…(or)…, while。表示方式:as if, as though, (just)as。表示比较:as…as, not as〔so〕…as, as…(so), the more…the more…。
②几个从属连词的主要用法:since从句中用终止性动词表示主句动作持续了多久,用延续性动词表示主句动作停止了多久。while表示“当……时”,从句用延续性动词;可引导“虽然”让步状语从句;还可用作并列连词,表示对比﹑轻度转折。no sooner…than…和hardly…when…使用时,主句用倒装语序,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。so that引导目的状语从句,从句常用情态动词。for fear(that),in case, lest等引导目的状语从句时,从句动词多用(should)do形式。as if, as though引导方式状语从句时,从句常用相应的虚拟语气动词形式。as引导让步状语从句时,从句常用倒装句。

※ 考点警示
①主语从句位于句首时,用If,不用Whether;主语从句﹑表语从句和同位语从句中的that不能缺省;多个并存的宾语从句中的that不可丢。作形式宾语的it和引导宾语从句的that都不省的重点句式要牢记,如see to it that……,take it for granted that……,feel it an honor that……。
②由“疑问代词+ever”构成的连接代词,既可引导让步含义的名词从句,又可引导让步状语从句;而“no matter+疑问代词或疑问副词”类,只能引导让步状语从句。
③what从句等于“先行词+关系代词”构成的定语从句,具有非凡的概括性,是句子的“物化”,而that﹑which引导的宾语从句甚至是定语从句,都是 “一个事件”“一个过程”,绝不能给人“名词”的感觉。一个语言学习者,如果能升华到如此高度,想必是难能可贵的,应对what类考题定会得心应手,稳操胜券!
④无论是哪一类“介词+关系代词”引导定语从句,避免犯用them替代whom﹑which的错误。牢固掌握关系代词whose和关系代词which的正确转换,如He works in a factory ,in whose front there is a river﹦He works in a factory ,in front of which there is a river﹦He works in a factory ,where there is a river.关注“介词+which﹙+名词﹚”类定语从句,如(2007•江苏)33. He was educated at the local high school, after which he went on to Beijing University. 及I told him to go to a doctor, which advice he took. 记清case﹑condition﹑situation﹑position﹑stage﹑point等作为先行词时,用关系副词where。the way在定语从句中作状语时,关系词用in which﹑that或省去不用。
⑤unless﹦if not引导条件状语从句,是考查的焦点。另外,还要注意状语从句的省略。主句和从句主语一致时,常采用“从属连词+-ed, -ing, n., adj., prep. phrase”形式,省去主语和谓语的一部分;甚至是更简单的省略,如if so , if not, what if…? where的句法功能极强,考生要会用它正确引导名词从句﹑定语从句和状语从句。

※ 同步训练
1.(2007•湖南)28. Having checked the doors were closed, and _________ all the lights were off, the boy opened the door to his bedroom.
A. why           B. that            C. when           D. where
2.(2007•浙江)5. Why not try your luck downtown, Bob? That’s ______ the best jobs are.
A. where          B. what           C. when           D. why
3.(2007•江苏)25. Choosing the right dictionary depends on ______ you want to use it for.
A. what B. why C. how D. whether
4.(2007•上海)40. The traditional view is ______ we sleep because our brain is “programmed” to make us do so.
A. when B. why C. whether        D. that
5.(2007•天津)15.The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer. Warm sunshine and soft sands make ____ it is.
A. what           B. which          C. how            D. where
6.(2007•陕西)20.Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases          beginners of English fail to use the language properly.
A. which   B. as    C. why       D. where
7.(2007•重庆)30.Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree_____they can be controlled on purpose.
A. with which      B. to which        C. of which        D. for which
8.(2007•江西)32.After graduation she reached a point in her career     she needed to decide what to do.
A. that            B. what           C. which          D. where
9.(2007•湖南)32. By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, ___________ can be very eye-opening and rewarding.
A. who           B. which           C. what           D. that
10.(2007•浙江)14. Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, ______ used to be poorly run, is now a successful business.
A. that          B. which             C. who         D. where
11.(2007•安徽)34. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _______ wanted to buy it.
A. none of them    B. both of them     C. none of whom    D. neither of whom
12.(2007•天津)11.Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity _____sight matters more than hearing.
A. when          B. whose          C. which           D. where
13.(2007•辽宁)32. We had to wait half an hour______ we had already booked a table.
A. since           B. although        C. until           D. before
14.(2007•陕西)18.-          when has the country been open to international trade?
- 1978, I suppose.
A. Since   B. In    C. From       D. After
15.(2007•陕西)7.Though he started late, Mr. Guo played the piano as well as, if      , Miss Liu.
A. not better than B. not better      C. no better than     D. better
16.(2007•重庆)22.My parents live in a small village. They always keep candles in the house____there is a power cut.
A. if             B. unless           C. in case         D. so that
17.(2007•山东)29.          I really don’t like art, I find his work impressive.
A.As           B.Since          C.If             D.While
18.(2007•安徽)25. In my opinion, life in the twenty-first century is much easier than ________.
A. that used to be   B. it is used to  C. it was used to    D. it used to be

※ 参考答案

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高考英语考点:从句
what从句的用法
从句中的虚拟语气
that和what引导的从句
【高中英语】从句与分词的关系

高考英语从句考查:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200902/11760.html
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