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复合不定代词

作者:佴启龙    文章来源:《初中生世界》    更新时间:2008/4/1
some, any, no 和every可以与one, body, thing构成复合不定代词,它们的用法与some, any 的用法基本相同。请看下表:
   
  一、以上复合不定代词都表示单数的概念,在句子中作主语、宾语或表语。作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:
   “Is there anything wrong with your watch?”“No, nothing is wrong with it.”“你的手表有些毛病吗?”“没有,一点毛病没有。”
  No one in our class can answer this question. 我们班上没有一个人能回答这个问题。
  Listen! Someone is knocking at the door. 听!有人在敲门。
  Somebody is waiting for you at the school gate, Kate. 凯特,有人在校门口等你。
  If there is no bread, we will eat something else. 如果没有面包,我们就吃点别的东西。
  There is something in what you said, I will take your advice. 你说的话有点道理,我会听你的忠告的。
  I think anyone can learn skating. 我认为任何人都可以学会溜冰的。
  Has anything unusual happened? 有什么不平常的事发生了吗?
  二、一般来说,当主语是指人的复合代词,如everybody, nobody, anybody 等时,其反意疑问句后面的主语通常用代词they;当前面句子中的复合代词指物,如everything, something, anything, nothing 等时,其反意疑问句后面的主语通常用代词it。如:
  Everyone is here, aren’t they? 人都到了,是吗?
  Everything is ready, isn’t it? 一切准备好了,是吗?
  Somebody is waiting for me at the gate, aren’t they? 有人在门口等我,是吗?
  三、当形容词或else (别的,其它的)修饰复合不定代词something,everything, nothing, anybody, nobody等时,该形容词或else必须放在复合不定代词的后面。如:
  Doyouhaveanythinginterestingtotellme? 你有什么有趣的事情要告诉我吗?
  I have answered several questions. Do you have anything else to ask? 我回答了好几个问题。你还有别的要问吗?
  Is there anybody else in the room? 屋子里还有别的人吗?
  四、一些有关复合不定代词词组的用法。
  1. something like 有点像,大约,极好的
  2. something of 在某种意义上,在某种程度上
  3. something to do with 与……有关
  4. or something 大概是……之类的(东西)
  5. or somebody 诸如此类的人
  6. all to nothing 百分之百(常用来作表语)
  7. be nothing to… 对……来说无足轻重,与……不能相比
  8. for nothing 无报酬,免费,无缘无故
  9. have nothing to do with… 与……无关
  10. mean nothing to do… 对……微不足道
  11. next to nothing… 几乎什么没有,几乎没有
  12. nothing but… 除……以外什么都没有,只有,只不过
  五、none, nothing 和no one 的区别。
  none既可指人,也可指物,它只是指在一定范围内,代替上下文已出现过的名词。nothing表示“没有什么东西”,只能指物,不能指人,同时没有任何限制。no one 一般用来指人,使用时不受一定范围的限制,后面一般不接引导的介词短语。如:
  “Have you bought any clothes? ”“None.” “你买衣服了吗?”“一件没买。”
  “Did anyone come to see me?”“No one.” “有人来看我吗?”“一个人也没有。”
  “Are there any birds in the tree now?”“None.” “现在树上有鸟吗?”“一只也没有。”
  “What is in the bag?”“Nothing”“袋子里有什么?” “什么也没有。”
  [专项训练]
  用something, anything, nothing, somebody, anybody, nobody, everything, everybody, everyone, someone, anyone, none, no one, no等填空。(有时可能有多个答案)
  1. There’s ______ in this bag, it’s empty.
  2. There is ______ waiting
  outside to see you. She didn’t tell me her name.
  3. I didn’t invite all of them, but ______ has come.
  4. I wanted some more coffee but there was ______ left.
  5. ______ of the people were afraid of danger.
  6. There isn’t ______ watchingTV at the moment.
  7.“Shall I make you ______ to eat?”“Yes, please.
  I’m really hungry. I’ve had hardly all day.”
  8. It’s a secret. ______knows about it.
  9. Will you ask ______ to carry this bag for me, please?
  10.“Is there ______ wrong here?”“No,______ is wrong.”
  
  参考答案:1. nothing
  2. someone / somebody
  3. everybody / everyone4. none
  5. None6. anybody / anyone
  7. something / anything
  8. Nobody / No one
  9. somebody / someone
  10. anything, nothing
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