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定语从句难点解析

作者:王桂斌    文章来源:高三英语    更新时间:2008/3/10
定语从句是高中英语学习中重要的语法项目,同时也是高考重点测试的项目之一。笔者就平时同学们学习过程中经常遇到的几个难点分别加以说明和解释,供同学们学习时参考。
  
  一、限制性定语从句只能用that的几种情况;
  
  1.当先行词是everything, anything, nothing (something除外), few, all, none, little, some等代词时,或者被every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much等修饰时,常用that;
  All that we have to do is to practise speaking English every day.
  Have you taken down everything that Mr. Smith has said?
  There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world.
  There is little that I can do for you.
  注意:当先行词指人时,有时也可以用who;
  Any woman that/who has a sense of responsibility won’t do such a thing.
  2.当先行词被序数词修饰时;
  The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.
  3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时;
  This is the best novel that I have seen.
  4.当先行词被the very, the only修饰时;
  This is the very dictionary that I want to buy.
  The only furniture that he had in the room was a bed and a small desk.
  当先行词指人时,有时也可以用who;
  Tom is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.
  5.当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时;
  Who is the man that is standing under the big tree?
  Which is the shirt that belongs to me?
  6.当先行词是两个或两个以上,分别表示人和物时;
  They often talked of the things and persons that they remembered in the school.
  7.当先行词是“to be”后面的表语,或者关系代词本身在从句中作表语时;
  He is not the man that he was. 他不再是过去那个样子了。
  The city is no longer the one that used to be.
  
  二、只用which不用that的几种情况;
  
  1.在非限制性定语从句中必须使用which;
  She made great progress in English study and won the first prize, which gave us a pleasant surprise.
  2.在“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中,必须使用which;
  These books, three of which I have read, are interesting and enjoyable.
  The palace to which I often pay a visit was built in the 17th century.
  3.当关系词后面有插入语时,必须使用which;
  Here is the Advanced English Learning Dictionary which, as I have told you, is a great help to you.
  
  三、在下列情况下,必须使用关系代词who,而不用that
  
  1.先行词为those, one, ones, anyone, people等时;
  Those who are from Beijing come this way.
  2.当先行词后有较长的后置定语时,或定语从句被分隔时;
  A teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you Japanese.
  3.当先行词是用-body或-one构成的不定代词时,关系代词多用who;
  Is there anybody else who should be invited?
  
  四、关系代词as和which引导的定语从句
  
  1.as和which都可以在定语从句中作主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子或句子的一部分;
  He is a student, as/which is clear from his manner.
  She was terrified, as/which I could see from her eyes.
  2.as引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后或者句子中间。另外,as有“正如……”,“正像……”的意思,后边的谓语动词多是see,know, expect, say, mention, report等;which引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后,意为“这一点”;
  As is known to all, water resources are very limited on the earth.
  As was expected, he did it successfully.
  He is from Hunan Province, as we can see from his accent.
  John Dever, as you know, was a famous singer in England.
  He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe.
  注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用which;
  Kate was always late for school, which made his teacher angry.
  3.当先行词被such, the same所修饰时,常用as;
  He used such expressions as he could find in the texts.
  This is the same book as I lost last week.
  注意:当先行词由the same修饰时,偶尔也用that引导定语从句,但是和由as所引导的定语从句意思不同,用that时表示先行词与关系词所指的是同一物体,而用as则指的是同类但却不是同一物。
She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding.
  她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的那件礼服。
  She wore the same dress as her young sister wore.
  她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的礼服。
  4.当非限制性定语从句为否定句时,常用which引导;
  Mr. Zhang usually criticizes Mary in public, which she doesn’t like at all.
  5.当非限制性定语从句的谓语是一个复合结构时,常用which引导;
  Little Bob always tells a lie, which his parents find strange.
  6.当as在从句中作主语时,后面的谓语动词常常使用被动语态,如果从句是主动语态,一般多用which;
  She has been late again, as was expected.
  Tom made great progress in Chinese, which made us delighted.
  
  五、定语从句和同位语从句的区别
  
  1.定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,是补充说明的关系;
  The plane that has just taken off is for London. (定语从句)
  The fact that he has been dead is clear. (同位语从句)
  2.定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导,关系词在从句中充当成分,有时可以省略;同位语从句主要由that引导,在句中一般不作成分,句子也可以由when, where, how, why, whether, what等词引导,充当成分。
  The news he told me is true.
  The news that he has just died is true.
  The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money.
  The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve.
  3.凡是同位语从句皆可改为The fact/news/idea/order/truth/thought is/was that…结构形式,而定语从句则不可以;
  The idea that we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful.
  The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice.
  The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all.
  The fact is that the earth moves around the sun.
定语从句难点解析|高中英语语法
高中英语语法:否定转移
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状语复习
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过去分词作宾补

定语从句难点解析:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200803/6407.html
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