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虚拟语气的四种类型

作者:金业祥    文章来源:高三英语    更新时间:2008/3/10
很多学生认为虚拟语气种类繁多且难以把握。但是,只要我们根据语法规则找出具有共性的东西加以归类,学起来就容易多了。
  
  一、时限型
  
  这种时限型虚拟语气主要对句子的时态有严格的限制。
  1.含条件句的复合句
  
  主句和从句可用同一时态,也可用不同的时态(错综时间)。例如:
  ①If I had wings, I could fly in the sky.
  ②If we had started a little earlier yesterday, we could have caught the train.
  ③If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go out.
  ④If you had followed the doctor’s advice, you might be all right now.
  
  2.wish后的宾语从句或as if (though)引导的状语从句
  与现在事实相反: 谓语用过去式
  与过去事实相反: 谓语用过去完成时
  与将来事实相反: 谓语用should, would, could或might+动词原形。例如:
  ①He wishes that I was a doctor.
  ②I wish that I had finished my homework yesterday.
  ③They wish that they would live on the moon someday.
  ④It seems as if it was spring already.
  ⑤They talked as though they had been friends for years.
  3.在It is high(good, about) time或would rather后的从句中,动词常用过去式。例如:
  ①It is high time that we went to bed.
  ②I would rather you came tomorrow.
  
  二、只用should型
  
  1.在某些表示请求﹑建议﹑命令﹑筹划等含义的动词suggest, insist, order, demand, command, propose, request, desire, arrange等后面的宾语从句,以及上述动词所对应的名词引起的主语从句﹑表语从句或同位语从句中, 谓语用should+动词原形, should常可省略。例如:
  ①He suggested that we (should) put on a play at the English evening.
  ②My idea is that we (should) put off the meeting.
  ③It was ordered that the guns (should) be sent to the front.
  ④He made the suggestion that they (should) speak English in the party.
  2.在It is+形容词或名词+that后的主语从句中,谓语用should+动词原形,should常可省略。例如:
  ①It is a pity that he (should) be so stupid.
  ②It is incredible that he (should) have finished his homework so soon.
  3.在lest, for fear that, in case等引起的从句中,谓语用should+动词原形,should常可省略。例如:
  ①He took his umbrella with him in case he (should) be caught in the rain.
  ②She burned the letter for fear that it(should) fall into the enemy’s hands.
  
  三、含蓄型
  
  假设的情况不是以条件句表现出来,而是通过介词短语(如: with,
  without, under, but for等)﹑连词(如: otherwise, or, but等)﹑不定式或分词等。
  ①But for their help, we could not have finished the task on time.
  ②Without water, there would be no life.
  ③It would be a mistake not to help her.
  ④I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have taken part in the party.
  
  四、省略与倒装型
  
  1.条件句中含有had, were, should, could等时,如果省略了if,就要把这些词提到句首构成倒装。例如:
  ①Had I known of your arrival, I would have met you at the airport.
  ②Were I in your position, I would accept their offer.
  2.我们既可以省略从句,也可以省略主句。例如:
  ①The child would have been saved. (省略了If the doctor had been there.)
  ②If only I had attended the meeting. (省略了I would have put forward a proposal.)
  还有一些比较简单的虚拟语气表现形式,这里就不一一列举了。
  
  巩固练习:
   1.They ____ you more help, but they were so busy that day.
  A. had givenB. would give
  C. gaveD. could have given
   2. It is strange that he ____ to pass the exam.
  A. has failedB. have failed C. failedD. would fail
   3. The headmaster gave an order that the cleaning ____ before 5:00.
  A. will be finished B. would be finished
  C. were finished D. be finished
   4. I was ill that day. Otherwise I ____ the party.
  A. would attendB. would have attended
  C. had attendedD. attended
   5. If you had finished the work yesterday, you ____ busy now. 
A. is notB. will not be
  C. would not beD. would not have been
   6. Tom insisted that he ____ the man break into the room.
   A. should see B. see C. had seenD. have seen
   7. We accepted the suggestion that ____ by Professor Smith in the
  meeting.
  A. should be put forwardB. be put forward
  C. was put forward D. would be put
   8. Mary always obeyed her parents lest they ____ angry.A. wereB. had been C. wasD. be
   9. He would rather ____ at home to watch TV play.
  A. stayed B. stays C. stayD. had stayed
  10. The expression on her face suggested that she ____ the exam.
  A. pass B. should have passed
  C. had passed D. have passed
  11. The boy talks as if he ____ a doctor.
   A. is B. were C. have been D. be
  12. He wishes that he ____ the maths problem yesterday.
  A. worked out B. works out
  C. has worked outD. had worked out
  13. It is about time that we ____ a rest.
   A. will have B. can have C. had D. might have
  14. It was the doctor’s advice that the patients ____ quiet.
  A. be keptB. would be keptC. would keepD. kept
  15. Look at the heavy clouds. It looks as if it ____.
  A. was going to snow B. is going to snow
  C. be going to snow D. snowed
  Key:1.D 2.B 3.D 4.B 5.C 6.C 7.C 8.D 9.C 10.C 11.B 12.D 13.C14.A 15.B
高中英语语法:否定转移
宾语从句中的虚拟语气
状语复习
定语从句难点解析
过去分词作宾补

虚拟语气的四种类型:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200803/6403.html
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