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学习被动语态的几点注意

作者:王会慈    文章来源:中学英语园地    更新时间:2007/9/4
英语谓语动词的语态一般分为主动语态和被动语态两种。主动语态表示主语和谓语动词之间为主动关系,即主语是动作的执行者。被动语态表示主语和谓语动词之间为被动关系,即主语是动作的承受者。被动语态由“助动词be + 过去分词”构成, be有人称、数和时态的变化。
  1. 注意短语动词和含情态动词的被动结构
  短语动词往往被看作是一个整体,在被动结构中,动词后面的介词或副词不可丢掉。例如:
  The old man was often laughed at. 那位老人常受人嘲笑。
  Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这样的事闻所未闻。
  The old man is taken good care of in the hospital. 这位老人在医院得到很好的照顾。
  2. 表示“据说”或“据信”意义的单词,如believe, consider, declare, expect, feel, report, say, see, suppose, think, understand等在无主语时常用被动形式。例如:
  It is said that many laid-off workers have been re-employed. 据说很多下岗工人重新就业了。
  It is reported that an earthquake happened around Taiwan Island and has caused a lot of damage. 据报道,台湾附近发生了地震,并且已造成了很大损失。
  It is suggested that the old office building be torn down in two months. 据建议这座旧的办公楼过两个月就要拆除了。
  It is taken for granted that the young should take care of the old. 年轻人照顾老人被视为是理所应当的。
  It must be remembered that some chemicals in the lab are not touched by bare hands. 务必记住实验室的一些化学药品不要用手去触摸。
  3. 注意下列情况不能用被动语态
  1) 不及物动词或不及物短语动词,如appear, die, disappear, end(vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place等,没有被动形式。例如:
  After the fire, very little remained of my house. 大火过后,我家烧得所剩无几。
  要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。要解决这一问题,只有在学习过程中多加留意,多积累。
  2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或短语动词有fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch, agree with, arrive at/in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to等。例如:
  This key just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只能配这把锁。
  Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你说的与我们听说的相一致。
  3) 系动词如appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn等,无被动语态。例如:
  It sounds good. 听上去不错。
  His plan proved (to be) practical. 结果证明他的计划是很实际的。
  4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,如die/death, dream/dream, live/life等不能用于被动语态;后跟反身代词、相互代词等作宾语的及物动词也不能用于被动语态。例如:
  She dreamed a bad dream last night. 她昨晚做了个噩梦。
  4. 有些动词的主动形式表示被动意义
  1) 这些动词有wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write等。例如:
  The plan worked out wonderfully. 这个计划制定得很好。
  Your pen writes smoothly. 你的笔很好用。
  2) blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build等亦无被动形式。例如:
  I was to blame for the accident. 事故发生了,我该受指责。
  Much work remains. 还有许多活儿要干。
  Food can keep fresh in the bridge. 食品在冰箱里能保鲜。
  The apartment rents for $500 a month. 这套房子每月租金为500美元。
  The tension and excitement built gradually all day. 整整一天,紧张与兴奋的气氛越来越浓。
  3) 在need, require, want, worth(形容词), deserve等后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。例如:
  The door needs repairing. (= The door needs to be repaired.) 门该修理了。
  This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
  4) 注意特殊结构,如make sb heard/understood(使别人能听见/理解自己)等的使用。例如:
  Explain it clearly and make yourself understood. 解释清楚些,让别人理解你的话。
  5. 有时被动形式也可以表示主动意义,如be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get married等。例如:
  He was graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。
  注意:表示“同某人结婚”时用marry sb或get married to sb均可。例如:
  He married a rich girl. (= He got married to a rich girl.) 他与一个富妞结婚了。
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学习被动语态的几点注意:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200709/4024.html