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中考英语语法复习:连词

作者:未知    文章来源:阅读与作文    更新时间:2007/8/20
        一、连词的种类
  连词是一种虚词,在句子中起连接作用,连接单词、短语或句子。从连词本身的含义及所表示的语言单位之间的逻辑关系来看,连词可分为并列连词和从属连词;从连词本身的结构来看,连词可分为简单连词、关联连词和分词连词。
  
  二、并列连词的用法
  并列连词在句子中连接两个并列的成分,在句中的位置比较固定,且两个并列连词不能并用,下面对常用的并列连词作一介绍。
  1. and
  and意为“和,并且,而且,但”,表示动作的先后、因果、转折、强化语义等。例如:
  Mary and Lucy like music very much.
  玛丽和露茜非常喜欢音乐。
  It's getting colder and colder in winter.
  冬天气候变得越来越冷。
  I like reading and my brother likes watching TV.
  我喜欢读书,而我弟弟喜欢看电视。
  Be careful and you'll make fewer mistakes.
  小心点,你就会少犯错误。
   2.or
  or意为“或、或者、否则”,表示选择、转折等。例如:
  Do you like bananas or apples?
  你是喜欢吃香蕉还是苹果呢?
  Lily or Lucy will help you today.
  今天莉莉或露茜将帮助你。
  Work hard or you'll fail in your exams.
  努力学习,否则你会考试不及格。
   3.but
  but表示“然而;但是,可是”,含有转折之意。例如:
  I failed last time but I won't lose confidence.
  我上次失败了,但没有失去信心。
  They have tried their best but they were beaten.
  他们已经尽了最大努力了,但最终还是失败了。
   4.so
  so表示“因此、所以、于是”,表示因果关系。例如:
  This is my first time to visit the town,so I don't know more about it.
  这是我第一次参观这个城市,因此我对它了解不多。
  She doesn't know French,so she doesn't understatand me at all.
  她不懂法语,因此她根本听不懂我的话。
   注意
  so还可以用作副词和代词,表示“也是如此”。例如:
  You speak so fast that everyone can't hear you clearly.你说得太快,大家都没有听清楚。
  ——Do you think the answer is right?
  你认为答案对吗?
  ——I think so. 我认为对。
  5. for
  for表示“因为”,用于解释发生某事的原因。例如:
  I was late this morning,for I got up late.
  我今天早上迟到,是因为我起床起晚了。
  Don't move,for there is a snake in front.
  别动,因为前边有一条蛇。
  Hurry up,for there is little time left.
  快点,因为几乎没有时间了。
   对比
  because引导原因状语从句,构成的是一种因果关系,专门解释原因,可回答 why的提问;for引导的句子只为前面的一个分句中所说的话提供推断的理由,加以解释,只能位于句末。例如:
  ——Why do you like English?
  你为什么喜欢英语
   ——Because I find it very interesting.
  因为我觉得它很有趣。
  My father didn't go to work yesterday,for he was hurt.我爸爸昨天没上班,因为他受了伤。
   6.both...and...
  both…and…表示“既……又……”、“两者都……”,连接并列主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:
  Both my English teacher and my maths teacher like playing football.
  我的英语和数学老师都喜欢踢足球。
  I can speak both French and English.
  我既会说法语也会说英语。
   7.neither...nor...
  neither...nor...表示“既不……也不……”、“两者都不”,连接两个并列主语时,谓语和靠近的那一个主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如:
  Neither my brother nor my sister likes music.
  我哥哥和我姐姐都不喜欢音乐。
  Neither America nor England agrees to the plan.
  美国和英国都不同意这个计划。
  8.either...or...
  either…or…表示“或者……或者……”、“要么……要么……”,有选择之意。连接并列主语时,谓语和靠近的那一个主语在人称和数上保持一致例如:
  You can drink either coffee or tea.
  你可以喝咖啡,也可以喝茶。
  Either Japan or China will take part in the meeting.
  或日本或中国将参加这个会议。
   9. not only...but (also)...
  Not only…but(also)…表示“不但……而且……”,连接并列主语时,谓语和靠近的那一个主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如:
  Not only the Chinese people but also the people all over the world love peace.
  不但中国人民而且全世界人民都热爱和平。
  She is not only a singer but also a dancer.
  她不仅是个歌唱家,而且是个舞蹈家。
  I not only heard it, but also saw it.
  我不但听见了,而且看见了。
  10. as well ss
  as well as表示“也、而且、和”,连接并列主语时,谓语和最前面的那一个主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如:
  The boy is handsome as well as clever.这个男孩既英俊又聪明。
  My brother as well as my parents is going to skate this afternoon.
  不仅我哥哥,我父母今天下午也将去滑冰。
  He is good at English as well as maths.
  他英语学得好,数学学得也好。
  注意
  as well as 表示“也”,侧重于前者,而not
  only...but(also)...侧重于后者。例如:
  My mother as well as I is interested in music.不仅我妈妈,我也对音乐感兴趣。(侧重于前者my mother)
  Not only you but also I am good at playing the piano.不但你而且我也擅长弹钢琴。(侧重于后者I)
  
  三、从属连词的用法
  从属连词用来连接各种从句,常见的从属连词有:as,after,before,when,while,since,untll,till,whether,if,because,as if,although,though,as though,that等,从属连词常用来连接主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和状语从句。下面对常用的从属连词作一介绍。
   1. that
  (1)that可用来连接宾语从句,往往可以省略:
  例如:
  He told me (that) he would call me.
  他告诉我他将给我打电话。
  The boss ordered that the job would be finished on time
  老板下令工作必须按时完成。
  (2)常用that连接的宾语从句列举:
  I guess that…我猜想……
  I'm glad that...我高兴……
  I think that...我认为……
  I'm sure that…我确信……
  I hope that…我希望……
  I'm afraid that...我担心……
  I remember that...我记得……
  I find that...我发现……
  I belleve that...我相信……
  I say that... 我说……
  注意
  think,believe,guess,feel,suppose等表示“猜测、认为、相信”等的词,如果主句是第一人称且为一般现在时,对于宾语从句的否定,要否定宾语从句,这在语法上叫做否定转移。例如:
  I think that you are wrong this time.---I don't think that you are wrong this time.
  我认为你这次没错。
  I believe that he is sure to come.---I don't believe that he is sute to come.
  我相信他肯定不会来。
  2. when,while,till,until,before,after,
  as soon as, as
  when,while, till until,befOre,after,as soon as,as等连词用事引导时间状语从句。例如:
  I was listening to musicwhenmy father cameback home.
  我爸爸回家时,我正在听音乐。
  She was dancmg while her mother was playin the piano.
  她妈妈在弹钢琴时,她在跳舞。
  All my friends had arrived before I came.
  在我来之前,我所有的朋友都到了。
  He listened to music as he was walking.
  他一边走一边听音乐。
   3.because,as,since
  because,as,since用来引导原因状语从句。例如:
  I didn't go to work last week because I was badly ill.
  我上周没上班是因为我得了重病。
  As she is thin,she can't carry the box.
  由于身体单薄,她扛不动这个箱子。
  Since everyone has come, let's begin our meeting.
  既然大家都到齐了,我们就开会吧。
  注意
  because表原因,直接说明因果关系,能回答why的提问;for用来解释出现某种结果的理由,只能放在句尾;since表原因,比because语气稍弱,不如beeause正式,往往表示间接的或附带的原因,多用于句首;as表原因,其语气比because和since都弱,as多用于日常生活会话中,它引导的从句往往放在主句之前。例如:
  Because he was ill,he didn't go to school yesterday.由于生病,他昨天没有去上学。
  It's getting cold,for winter has come.
  天气变冷了,因为冬天来临了。
  Since it's fine today,let's So picnicing.
   (既然)今天天气好,咱们去野餐吧。
  As he was ill,we didn't tell him about.
  由于他病了,我们就没把这件事告诉他.
   4. if, unless,even if(though),though
   (although)
  if,unless,even if(though),though (although)引导条件或让步状语从句。例如:
  You mustn't move someone if he is badly hurt.
  如果一个人受了重伤,你一定不要去挪动他。
  you won't pass the exam unless you work harder.
  如果你不更加努力学习,你考试就不会过关。
  We are still good friends though we quarrelled.
  尽管我们吵厂架,我们仍然是好朋友。
  They will keep on practising even if (though)it is rainy.
  即使天下雨他们也将继续训练。
  5. so...that...
  so…that…表示“如此……以至于……”,用来引导结果状语从句。例如:
  I was so tired that I couldn't move a bit.
  我累得走不动了。
  We practised so hard that we beat the boy team.
  我们训练得很刻苦,所以打败了男子队。
   注意
  注意so... that...与such...that...too...to…,enough to ...的互换。
  She is so sick that she can't go out.
  She is such a sick person that she can't go out.
  She is too sick to go out.
  He works so hard that he gets the first place in his class.
  He works hard enough to get the first place in his class. 英语语法实践
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中考英语语法复习:连词:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200708/3838.html
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