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宾语从句语法讲解

作者:佚名    文章来源:www.njyyjy.com    更新时间:2007/3/3

中学英语宾语从句语法讲解


[宾语从句歌诀]

  宾语从句三姊妹,thatif/whetherwh-/how展风采。

  展风采有三关,引导词、语序、时态在把关。

  主从时态要一致,陈述语序永不变。

  陈述请你选that,疑问需用if/whether连。

  特殊问句作宾从,原来问词不用换。

  三关过后莫得意,人称、标点需注意。

  留意变脸的if/when,从句的简化记心间。

  [歌诀解码]

  一、三姊妹

  宾语从句根据引导词的不同可分为三种类型:

  1. that引导的宾语从句。如:

  We knew thatwe should learn from each other.

  2. if/whether引导的宾语从句。如:

  Please tell me if/whether you have been to America.

  3. whowherehow等连接代词或连接副词引导的宾语从句。如:

  Can you tell me how I can get to the nearest post office

  二、三关

  1. 引导词关

  如果从句是陈述句,引导词用thatthat在口语或非正式文体中常省略);如果从句是一般疑问句,引导词用if/whether;如果从句是特殊疑问句,引导词用由疑问词转换而来的疑问代词/副词。

  2. 语序关

  陈述句变为宾语从句,语序不变,即仍用陈述语序。如:

  He is an honest boy. The teacher said. →The teacher saidthathe was an honest boy.

  一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句,语序变为陈述语序。如:

  Does he work hardI wonder.→I wonder if/whether he works hard.

  When did he leaveI don’t know. →I don’t know when he left.

  3. 时态关

  如果主句是现在的时态,从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。如:

  I have heardthathe will come back next week.

  如果主句是过去的某种时态,那么从句的时态一定要用过去的某种时态。如:

  He saidthatthere were no classes yesterday.

  注意:如果宾语从句表述的是客观真理、自然现象等时,不管主句是什么时态,从句都要用一般现在时。如:

  He said that light travels much faster than sound.

  三、人称的变化和标点的使用

  1. 从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如:

  “May I use your knife”He asked me. →He asked me if he might use my knife.

  “Do you know her telephone number”He asked me. →He asked me if I know her telephone number.

  2. 宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:

  Who will give us a talkI don’t know. →I don’t know who will give us a talk.

  Do you knowWhere does he live→Do you know where he lives

  四、两副面孔

  ifwhen既能引导时间状语从句,又能引导宾语从句。因此,遇到它们就要认真分析一下,它们究竟属于两副面孔的哪一副。如:

  If it rains tomorrowI won’t come.(时间状语从句)

  I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. (宾语从句)

  五、从句的简化

  1. 当主句谓语动词是findseewatchhear等感官动词时,从句常简化为宾语+宾补结构,宾补为不带to的不定式或V-ing形式。如:

  She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. →She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.

  2. 当主句谓语动词是hopewishdecideforgetplanagree等,且主句主语与从句主语相同时,从句可简化为不定式结构。如:

  She agreed that she could help me with my maths. →She agreed to help me with my maths.

  3. 在连接代词/副词引导的宾语从句中,当从句主语与主句主语或间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为连接代词/副词+不定式结构。如:

  Can you tell me how I can get to the station→Can you tell me how to get to the station

中学英语在线答疑
学习被动语态的几点注意
情态动词考点简析
分词误用例析
主谓一致专项练习

宾语从句语法讲解:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200703/2119.html
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