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英语语法实践

作者:ryedu英语    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2006/12/24

第一章:基本句型
1. 1基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)
英语中的句子千变万化,但是都离不开五个基本句型,这五个基本句型是我们学习英语语法的基本框架结构,具体为:
1) SVC-------主语+动词+主语补语
e.g: Miss Johns is a secretary .
2)  SV-------主语+动词
   e.g: The flowers are blooming .
3) SVO-------主语+动词+宾语
e.g: We are playing basketball .
4) SVOiOd-------主语+动词+间宾+直宾
   e.g: The mother will buy the girl a dress .
5) SVOCo-------主语+动词+宾语+宾语补语
   e.g: The parents consider the child a genius .
上述五个基本句型的关键在于谓语动词,因此掌握这五个基本句型及其谓语动词的变化应作为我们学习英语语法的出发点。
1. 2主语(Subject)和谓语(Predicate)
1) 句子有两个最重要的成分,那就是主语和谓语。主语表明这句话说的是谁或者什么情况,谓语说明主语的情况(动作或状态),例如:
      主语   谓语
a.    Mother   is   cooking .
b.    They     are  brave .
2) 主语一般由名词或起名词作用的其它词类、短语或从句担任,例如:
a. Quality matters more than quantity.
                 ----------名词作主语
b. A poor man is not necessarily unhappy .
              ---------名词词组作主语
c. He is the boy’s father.
                ------------代词作主语
d. Three is not enough .
                ------------数词作主语
e. To know the disease is half the cure .
                ---------不定式作主语
f. Talking mends no holes .
          ---------动词-ing形式作主语
g.Whether or not they will come depends on the weather.   -----------名词性从句作主语
3) 谓语主要是由动词或动词短语担任,有时也可由系动词加一个形容词或名词担任。谓语动词的性质决定其是否必须跟主语补语、宾语、宾语补语及状语等后续成分,例如:
a. His sister is a doctor .
--------系动词+主语补语
b. The works are working .
--------不及物动词
c. Grandfather is telling story .
--------及物动词+宾语
d. My friend gave me a book .
-------及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语
e.I thought this action unnecessary .
       -------及物动词+直接宾语+宾语补语
f. They were sitting before the fire place .
              -------不及物动词+状语
g. He will have received the letter by now .
              -------及物动词+宾语+状语
1.3 SVC结构(主语+动词+主语补语)
1) 主语的补语-------主语的补语可以由各种成分或形式充当,具体为:
a. Necessity is the mother of invention .
-------名词词组作主语补语
b. who is this ?  It’s me .
--------代词作主语补语

c. One from three is two .
-------------数词作主语补语
d. The beans are nice .
---------------形容词作主语补语
e. Tom is not in .
----------------副词作主语补语
f. Granny is in good health .
------------介词短语作主语补语
g. My intention was to help him .
---------不定式短语作主语补语
h. The important thing is knowing what to do.---------动词-ing形式作主语补语
i. We are all concerned about her safety .
-----------动词-ed形式作主语补语
j. The question under discussion is where they should build the factory .
-------------名词性从句作主语补语
2) 连系动词(Link Verb)也可以构成主补结构,如:
a. 表示“变得”“成为”的一系列动词------become, come , fall, get, go, grow, run, turn等,例如:
It is getting dark .
The food went bad.
b. 表示保持着某一状态的动词--------continue, hold, keep, lie, remain, stand, stay,等,例如:
The milk remained fresh for a week .
The weather continued warm .
c. 表示“看起来”“好象”的动词----------appear, look, seem, 等,例如:
The house appears large.
Your sister seemed unwell .
d.  表示“实感”的动词-----------feel, smell, sound, taste等,例如:
Your sentence sounds right.
The apple tastes sour.
1.4 SV(主语+动词)和SVO(主语+动词+宾语)结构
1) 及物动词(Transitive Verb)和不及物动词 (Intransitive Verb)
及物动词的特点是必须跟宾语,不及物动词的特点是不跟宾语或着不能直接跟宾语。英语中有些动词只能用作及物动词,如:enjoy, ignore, complete等;也有些动词只能用作不及物动词,如:arrive, struggle ,vanish等;但多数动词既可以用作及物动词也可以用作不及物动词,例如:
Suddenly the procession stopped.
------------SV结构,stop为不及物动词
The police stopped the procession.
------------SVO结构,stop为及物动词
附: 几个词形相似容易混淆的及物动词和不及物动词lay/lie ,raise/rise ,shine/shine,列表如下:
       vt       vi
lay(laid,laid,laying)放、置 lie (lay,lain,lying)躺
raise(raised,raised,raising-------------抬高 rise(rose,risen,rising) -------------升高
shine(shined,shined,shining)-------------使……光亮 shine(shone,shone,shining) -------------发光亮
2) SVA和SVOA结构(A指,adverbial,状语)
在某些情况下,上述SVA和SVOA结构必须跟有状语意义才算完整,例如:
a--The sun has set .
a’--The sun has set in the west.
b--Did you play basketball?
b’--Did you play basketball after class?
1.4 SVOiOd(主语+动词+间宾+直宾)
1) SVOiOd结构的语序
a) 一般应是, S+V+Oi+Od,间接宾语后移时必须在他前面加上to, for等介词,例如:
Ann gave a beautiful doll to her daughter.
Ann made a beautiful doll for her daughter.
b) 直接宾语为代词时必须紧跟在动词后面;如果直接宾语和间接宾语都是代词,直接宾语一般放在前面。例如:
正确:The mother bought it for the girl 。
错误:The mother bought the girl it 。
正确:The mother bought it for her。
错误:The mother bought her it 。
c)少数动词只有一种语序,例如:
The repairman charge me ten dollars 。但也可以说:The repairman charge ten dollars to my account。
2) 间接宾语后移时,间接宾语前加介词的情况:
a)加介词to表示间接宾语是动作的接受者例如:
 I will tell the hens to the ministers secretary.
  b)加介词for表示间接宾语是动作的收益者。例如:
she cooked three meals for the  whole family.
 注:
(1)个别动词如leave的间接宾语既可以加for也可以加to.如:
When she died she left her property to her son.
Have you left any food for the others
(2)个别的动词如ask 在间接宾语后移时可在间接宾语前加for.如:
May I ask you a favour
May I ask a favour of you
1.6 SVOCo结构(主+动词+宾语+宾补)
和主语补语一样宾语补语的结构也有一些形式,如:
a、 The team chose charlotte captain—名词作补语
b、 He proved her wrong—形容词作补语
c、 I supposed him upstairs—副词作宾补
d、 They consider her above others—介词短语作宾补
e、 We believe Tom to be a fine player—不定式作作宾补
f、 I found John sleeping—动词-ing形式作宾补
g、 She thought the house deserted—动词-ed做宾补
注:①上面各句的宾语后面有些可以加to be,句子的意思基本不变。如:
We suppose him(to be) upstairs.
②有些宾语补语可用as引入。例如:
The team chose charlottes as captain
③有些宾语补语可以变为名词从句,例如:
They consider that she was above others。(用于正式语体)

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英语语法--倍数表达法
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定冠词的用法
零冠词的用法

英语语法实践:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200612/594.html
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