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高中英语语法:否定转移

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2006/12/26
高中英语语法:否定转移
   

在学英语的过程中,学生常将这样的句子 "我认为这不是个好主意." 译为"I think it isnt a good idea." 而将这句英语译成汉语时,学生又会译为 "我不认为这是个好主意." 老师又会说译错了,这不符合 "I dont think..." 句型,应译为 "l dont think its a good idea."
那么,这错误的根源究竟在哪里?这就是“英语的否定转移”在作怪。

否定转移在非正式语体中特别常见,它是将语义上属于从属分句(一般为that clause)的否定词转移到母句中去。

允许否定转移的母句动词在语义上可分为以下两组:

1.看法(OPINION):anticipate,be supposed to,believe,calculate, expect,figure(infml,AmE),imagine, reckon (infml,esp, in AmE),suppose,think:
Eg. I dont believe Ive met you before.
("I believe I havent met you before.")
Eg. She didnt imagine that we would say anything.
("She imagined we wouldnt say anything.")
Eg. He didnt expect to win.
("He expected not to win.")

2.感觉(PERCEPTION) :appear,seem,feel as if,look as if,sound as if (后三个动词也作infml,esp, in AmE,其中用like来代替as if):
Eg. It doesnt seem that we canget our money back.
"It seems that we cant get our money back."
Eg. The baby doesnt appear to be awake.
("The baby appears not to be awake.")
Eg. It doesnt look like its going to rain.
("It looks like it isnt going to rain.")

否定的转移是一种含糊的现象。对于否定词位置不同的两个句子,意思是否相同,或者在多大程度上相同的问题,各人的直觉可能是不同的。但在以下特殊情况下,原来允许否定转移的动词不能将否定转移:
1.I think是插入句,可看作与其他部分无关:
I wish you were here,then I think I should not feel like this.

2.母句中添加情态动词cant mustnt wouldnt时:
I cant believe that they are married.
You mustnt think hes stupid.
I wouldnt have imagined that Sandra would be here.

3.由于cannot helping,ought not,need not,not at all等短语的关系而把
I think隔离。
I should have thought sometimes you couldnt help thinking of the past.
I think you ought not to walk at night alone,Mrs. Moore.
I think you need not be impolite to her,as well as to her son.
"I think the angel are not at all in heaven." Mr.Esmond said."

4. 由于not just... but, just not... enough,not much, not quite等以not为核心的副词短语的影响,也不便把否定拿到动词的前面去:
I think Im just not smart enough to make any sense out of for you.
"You think shes not much like you? Brerald asked.
But I think that Elizabeth was not quite so certain of it as I.
句中含有no, never, nothing, nobody等的不定词时:
I should think you never have seen many.
I thought it explained nothing.

宾语从句中的虚拟语气
状语复习
虚拟语气的四种类型
定语从句难点解析
过去分词作宾补

高中英语语法:否定转移:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/zxyy/200612/1484.html