位于东海岸(Eastern Seaboard)中央位置的马里兰是联邦(1788年)刚成立时的最初13州之一。据称马里兰此名是由1632年时，收到这片土地的特许状的巴尔地摩(Lord Baltimore)阁下所命，旨在纪念英王查理一世(King Charles I)之妻玛丽亚皇后(Queen Henrietta Maria)。1760年代时，为解决宾州及卡尔维特(Calvert)家庭之间的纷争所设下的梅逊狄克逊分界线(Mason and Dixon line)，除了是宾州及马里兰之间的边界外，也是传统的南北分界线。 又名「自由之州」(Free State)的马里兰，其州花是黑眼苏珊花，而首府是亚那波里(Annapolis)，即美国海军官校(U.S. Naval Academy)的所在地。
One of the original 13 states to join the Union (in 1788), Maryland is in the middle of the Eastern Seaboard. It's believed that Lord Baltimore, who received a charter for the land in 1632, named the state after Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of King Charles I. The Mason and Dixon line was drawn in the 1760s to settle a dispute between the Penn and Calvert families. In addition to marking the boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland, it is the traditional boundary between the North and the South. Maryland is known as the "Free State"; its flower is the black-eyed susan; and its capital is Annapolis, home of the U.S. Naval Academy.
当大部分的非裔美人还是奴隶时，班纳克已经是一位自学的科学家。生为自由黑人的班纳克于1731年英国殖民时期(British Colony)的马里兰出生，曾受过一些正式的教育，但他大部分的科学及数学知识都是学自他借来的书本。22岁时，他向他人借来了一个怀錶，在未经任何训练的下，他自己动手凋刻、製作了一个每小时报时一次的木製时钟 。他因为这个时钟而出名，人们会去拜访他，只为了观赏他的创造品。
班纳克经营家中农场多年，但在他的五十岁晚年时，邻居的儿子借了一幅望远镜给他，自此开启了他对天文学的兴趣；他开始研究行星及天体，并且再次自学一门新的科学领域 。他计算潮汐及太阳的起落时间，甚至预测日蚀的发生日期。连续几年的时间，他出版了一本载有上列计算公式的曆书。时至今日，他因 出版了六本曆书而闻名于世，而这六本出版于1792至1797年的曆书 被称为「班纳克曆书」(Benjamin Banneker's Almanac)。
1790年代，班纳克也帮忙勘测及绘製华盛顿特区的土地，而华盛顿特区后来成为国家的首府 。若要一探班纳克的惊人生平，可造访位于马里兰埃立科特市(Ellicott City)的班纳克历史公园及博物馆。
Do you know who Benjamin Banneker was and what he did?
Benjamin Banneker was a self-educated scientist at a time when most African Americans were slaves. Born a free black man in the British Colony of Maryland in 1731, he received some formal education, but he mostly borrowed books and taught himself science and mathematics. At 22, he borrowed a pocket watch, and without any training, figured out how to carve a working wooden clock that chimed each hour. Because of this clock, he became well known and people would visit him just to see his creation.
Banneker ran his family farm for many years, but when he was in his late 50s, a neighbor's son lent him a telescope. He became interested in astronomy, the study of the planets and stars, and again taught himself a new science. He made calculations of tides, sunrises and sunsets, and even predicted an eclipse. For several years he published an almanac of these calculations. Today, he is best known for publishing six almanacs, called "Benjamin Banneker's Almanac," between 1792 and 1797.
In the 1790s, Banneker also helped survey and lay out the land for Washington, D.C., which became the nation's capital. For a look at Banneker's amazing life, visit the Benjamin Banneker Historical Park & Museum in Ellicott, City, Maryland.没有相关文章