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英汉成语翻译第 2 页

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2009/12/27


 
(四)确切理解,不要望文生义  
   (有些英语成语看起来与汉语某些成语相似,但意义完全不同,或存在细微差别。要特别注意。如:
to go home    作为自由词组,是“回家”的意思。但用作成语,往往表示“击中要害”和“发生影响”;
to wash one's hand  容易让人误解为 “洗手不干”,其实含有“断绝关系”、“推脱责任”的意思;
 to bark at the moon 和“蜀犬吠日”,两个成语虽然设喻差不多,但情景和思路大不一样,前者比喻“徒劳无益”,后者比喻
“少见多怪”。)
(五)分辨褒贬义,注意有褒贬两可的。  如:
(It's an ill wind that blows nobody good.  天下无绝对的坏事。(有弊必有利)
 这句谚语看起来好像是贬义,其实不然;
Birds of a feather flock together. 并无贬义,无非表示消极意义;
To be hand and (in) glove with 即可用于褒义,又可用于贬义。不能不加区别,一概译成“亲密无间”。 比较:
 The two friends are hand in glove with each other.
 这两位朋友亲如手足。
 The traitors and the enemy were working hand in glove with each other.
 卖国贼和敌人相互勾结。
 Every official is hand in glove with him.
 当官的跟他穿一条裤子。
 再如:to lock the stable door after the horse has been stolen,有人译成“亡羊补牢”,并不妥当。“亡羊补牢”是“犹为未晚”,含义是积极的。英语成语是说“马已被盗,再关厩门也无益了”,含义是消极的。)
 
(六)英汉互译时,为方便读者理解,可适当添词或减词
  (汉语成语多是四字组成,译成英语时,不能仅从字面意义去译,而应领会其实质,译出内在思想。必要时,可以加词。如:Show off one's proficiency with the axe before Lu Ban,the master carpenter. 如不在译文中加上the master carpenter Lu Ban,恐怕大多数外国人都不知Lu Ban是何许人。
   相反,有时也可以省译。 如:山雨欲来风满楼。The wind sweeping through the tower heralds a rising storm in the mountains. 只保留原文的主要比喻,省略了“山”,“楼”的字眼。外语爱好者网站 -英语教学版
  有些并列式成语,如:“取之不尽,用之不竭”,英译时仅用“inexhaustible”一个词来表达;又如:沉鱼落雁之容,闭月羞花之貌。只要译成Her beauty would put the flowers to shame.)
  
 四字成语往往含义重复,在修辞上优美匀称,但翻译时,只要译出其中一组的意思即可。 如:
花言巧语  fine words            油嘴滑舌    glib tongue
长吁短叹  sighing deeply         精疲力竭    exhaustion, exhausted
发号施令  issue orders           土崩瓦解    fall apart

(七)有时,英语原文没用成语,但译文却用四字成语。 如:
Over the past several weeks, she had grown increasingly restless.
 过去几周,她越来越六神无主。
I was nervous before crowds.
 我在大庭广众之前感到紧张。
It was a privilege revokable at any time on whim(冲动)of the authorities.
 只要当权者心血来潮,这种恩赐随时可以取消。
                                                                       (end of 3-2?)

四、英汉成语翻译第 2 页举例

a laughing stock                  笑柄   (树桩/木头)
in the land of nod                 睡乡   (瞌睡/打盹)
at snail's pace                    蜗行
in one's evening of life             晚年
an outsider                      门外汉
all skin and bone                 皮包骨
the year of snow, the year of fertility 瑞雪兆丰年
a blot from the blue              晴天霹雳  (耻辱)
to see through at a glance         一眼看穿
to see through the trickery        看穿把戏
to fish in troubled waters             混水摸鱼 1    (张培基:“完全相同的形象比喻”162页)
to do something by halves        半途而废
a heart of stone                 铁石心肠
strike while the iron is hot        趁热打铁
tit for tat                     一报还一报
like father, like son             有其父必有其子
A rolling stone gathers no moss   滚石不生苔
to seek truth from facts          实事求是
to become cocksure             自以为是
to stand on one's own feet         自立
slow and steady                 稳健
skin deep                      肤浅
the prime of life                壮年
call a spade a spade             说实话
to gain the upper hand                  占上风
to hold the cards in one's hand    操胜券
fair field and no favour          一视同仁
to go with the tide              随波逐流
to be in the same boat           同舟共济
to go through thick and thin      赴汤蹈火
to one's heart's desire           称心如意
to pour oil on the flame         火上浇/加油   /to add fuel to the fire 2
to become a household word     家喻户晓
to be in two minds             三心二意
as alike as two peas            一模一样
a sea of faces                 人山人海
rain or shine                  风雨无阻
haste makes waste              欲速不达
much coin, much care           钱多劳神
to read between the lines        字里行间   (implied meaning!)
to vanish like smoke            烟消云散
to end in smoke                烟消云散
practice makes perfect          业精于勤
to provide against a rainy day    未雨绸缪 (mo)
wait-and-see attitude           观望态度
to talk black into white          颠倒黑白
in black and white              白纸黑字
Many a little/pickle (Every little) makes a mickle. 集腋成裘/积少成多 (old Scotish: a./ad./n. 许多/大量)
to fish for compliments          沽名钓誉
to cudgel one's brain            绞尽脑汁   (用棍敲击)
firm as a rock                  坚如磐石
to be lean as a lath              骨瘦如柴   (a: /板条)
not to stir a finger              袖手旁观
to fish in the air                缘木求鱼
a friend in need is a friend indeed  患难之交
care killed the cat               愁能伤人
to wear one's heart on one's sleeves                   心直口快
a contented mind is a perpetual feast                  知足长乐       (/banquet)
to tread the heel of                                步其后尘
to spare no effort                                 不遗余力
to leave no stone unturned                          不遗余力
to play ducks and drakes with one's money             挥金如土       (female/male)
to kill two birds with one stone                      一石二鸟
Pride goes before fall                              谦受益,满招损
Better is a neighbour that is near than a brother far off.   远亲不如近邻
Much ado about nothing                           无事忙/生非/小题大做
Lover's quarrels are soon mended       夫妻无隔夜之愁
Ill news comes apace                 好事不出门,恶事传千里    (pace-space)
to have a finger in the pie              染指/干预
to bull in a china shop                 闯祸
to burn the midnight oil               开夜车
put on airs                          摆架子
a stitch in time saves nine              事半功倍
Well begun is half done.               良好的开端是成功的一半
Birds of a feather flock together         物以类聚
to cast pearls to the swine              对牛弹琴  (猪!)
a black sheep                        害群之马
to hold a candle to the devil            助纣为虐
to hail the rising sun                  趋炎附势
An old head on a young pair of shoulders 少年老成
neither fish nor flesh                  不伦不类
black and blue                       鼻青脸肿
to shed crocodile tears                 猫哭老鼠
to put a fifth wheel to the coach          画蛇添足
to spring up like mushrooms            雨后春笋
to put the cart before the horse           本末倒置
to make a mountain of a small hill        小题大做
He that dies pays all debts              一了百了
as snug as a bug in a rug               舒舒服服  (warm & comfortable/cosy)
No use crying over spilt milk           覆水难收
to be at sixes and sevens                   乱七八糟    (张培基:“大体相同”162页)
Six of 1 and half a dozen of the other.          半斤八两
to hang by a thread                   千钧一发
Harm hatch, harm catch.               恶有恶报   (孵(小鸡))
once in a blue moon                  千载难逢
after death, the medicine / after meat, the mustard.   放马后炮
the memory of a good deed lives        流芳百世
to have a card up one's sleeves          锦囊之计
to warm a snake in one's bosom         养虎为患
hitting the nail on the head            一针见血
to flog a dead horse                  徒劳无功
to help a lame dog over the hill         救人之急
to put all one's eggs in one basket       孤注一掷
to teach one's grandma to suck eggs     不自量力
to know the ropes                    熟门熟路
by fits and starts                     一曝十寒
like cures like                       以毒攻毒
to beat with one's own stuff            自相矛盾
to carry coal to Newcastle             多此一举
to cut the Gordian knot               快刀斩乱麻  (Greek mythology: 棘手)
goose-flesh                        鸡皮疙瘩
to break a fly upon the wheel          杀鸡用牛刀
to count one's chickens before they are hatched    打如意算盘
In for a penny, in for a pound              一不做,二不休
a cat on hot bricks                      热锅上的蚂蚁
Nothing venture, nothing gain.            不入虎穴,焉得虎子
Do unto others as you would be done by    己所不欲,勿施于人
A miss is as good as a mile               差之毫厘,失之千里
Greek meets Greek                     棋逢对手
Diamond cuts diamond                  针锋相对
on the horns of a dilemma               进退两难
a blessing in disguise                   塞翁失马,焉知非福
to play with fire                       玩火
to buy off                             收买
to turn for the better                    好转
to see how the wind blows               看风势
to wound one's feelings                 伤感情
to see the world                       见世面
to praise to the skies                    捧上天去
at one's wits end                       智穷才尽
by leaps and bounds                     突飞猛进
to turn over a new leaf                  改过自新
The longest day must have an end.        世上没有不散的宴席。
Where there is life, there is hope.         留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。
Many kiss a baby for the nurse's sake.               醉翁之意不在酒。
Many hands make light work.                      众人拾柴火焰高
Who keeps company with the wolf will learn to howl   近朱者赤,近墨者黑

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