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学习被动语态的几个问题

作者:佚名    文章来源:net    更新时间:2006/12/26
学习被动语态的几个问题
   
  被动语态是动词的一种特殊形式,表示句子中的主语是动作的承受者,汉语往往用“被”、“受”、“给”等词来表示被动意义。《大学英语自学教程》系统讲解了被动语态的构成、基本句型以及用法,考生们在学习这一语法现象时,还应注意以下几个方面,以免在实际运用中出现差错。

一、主动形式表示被动意义

  英语的被动意义除了用及物动词的被动语态形式表示外,还可以用其他方法来表示,就像在汉语中并非一定要用“被”字来表示的被动意义一样。

  1、用某些不及物动词表示被动意义,如carry,cut,drive,iron,keep,lock,open,pick,read,sell,shut,tear,wash,wear,write等等。这类动词既能作及物动词,也能作不及物动词。作不及物动词时,形式上虽为主动,却表示被动意义。例如:

Meat cuts easily.肉容易切。

His novel sells well.他的小说畅销。

The car drove easily.这车很容易开。

Your pen writes quite smoothly.你的笔写起来很滑。

在上述句子中,主语通常指物,起动作承受者的作用,也可以说是不及物动词的逻辑宾语。但是有时也有用人称主语的。例如:

The girl does not photograph well.这女孩不上像。比较:The girl has not been photographed well.这女孩的照片没拍好。

2、某些感觉动词的主动态表示被动意义。例如:

This shirt feels much softer than that one.这件衬衫比那件衬衫摸起来柔软得多。   That book smells old.那本书有一股霉味。

These oranges taste nice.这些橙子味道很好。

  以上这些动词都不能用进行时表示。若用进行时,则表示主动含义。比较:The child is smelling the paint.小孩正在闻油漆的气味。

3、有少数动词(bind,cook,do,owe,print)的进行时有时有被动意义。在这种用法中,句子的主语都应该是指物的。例如:

The magazine is binding(printing).这本杂志正在装订(印刷)。   

He paid all that was owing.欠的钱他都还了。   

The meat is cooking.正在火敦肉。   

4、动词get,come,go之后接过去分词,表示被动意义。get的这种用法局限于口语和非正式的书面语言,更强调动作的结果而非动作本身,并常用来表示突发性的、出乎意料的偶然事件。而come和go常接含否定意义的过去分词。例如:   

After working selflessly in here for several years,Mr Li got promoted at last.李先生在此地无私地干了好几年,终于得到提升。   

They got delayed because of the holiday traffic.由于节日交通阻塞,他们被耽误了。  The buttons on my coat came undone.我上衣的扣子松开了。   

The woman's complaints went unnoticed.那位女士的投诉无人理睬。  5、在need(want,require,deserve,etc.)doing句型中,动名词(doing)相当于动词不定式的被动式(to be done),在意思上没有多大差别。例如:   

The garden needs watering.The garden needs to be watered.花园需要浇水。   The problem requires studying with great care.The problem requires to be studied with great care.这个问题需要仔细研究。

These jobs want doing at once.These jobs want to be done at once.这些工作需要马上就做。

  用法相似的结构还有bear doing,stand doing,be worth doing,习惯不用动词不定式。如: That won't bear thinking of.那是不堪想像的。   

The little girl can't stand criticizing.小女孩经不起批评。   

The food is not worth eating.这种饭菜不值一吃。   

It's well worth making the effort to learn how to do it.很值得花一番功夫去学会怎么做这事。

  值得注意的是,在be worth doing句型中,只能用动名词的主动式,而在be worthy to be done中,才能用动词不定式的被动式,两者不可混淆。   6、在某些性质形容词+动词不定式的句型中,其动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。例如:   

The question is easy to answer.这问题容易回答。  

That book is difficult to understand.那本书难懂。   

在这种句型结构中,动词不定式和主语的关系实际上是一种逻辑上的动宾关系,可以说是动词不定式作主语变换来的,相当于It's easy to answer the question.和It's difficult to understand that book.由于把动词宾语放在主语位置,所以和不定式的关系构成一种被动关系。   

7、有些动词不定式不论用主动形式还是被动形式,动词不定式和主语的关系都是被动的。例如:   

Nobody was to blame (to be blamed) for the accident.这个事故,谁也不能责怪。  The house is to let (to be let).这房子出租。   

There are a lot of books to read (to be read).有许多书要读。   Those cars are to rent (to be rented).那些汽车出租。   

8、以-able或-ible结尾的形容词可表示被动意义。例如:   These tickets are available for one month.These tickets are capable of being used for one month.这些票可用一个月。   

It's a credible explanation.The explanation can be trusted.这是一种可信的解释。 The fish was hardly eatable.The fish could hardly be eaten.这鱼几乎不能吃。   9、有些介词短语用作表语或定语时,可以表示被动意义。例如:   

The thief is under arrest.The thief has been arrested.小偷已被捕。

Apples are on sale.Apples are being sold.苹果在出售。

The phenomenon under study is very interesting.The phenomenon which is being studied is very interesting.正在研究的现象十分有趣。

10、在冠词the和a (an)后面只能用动名词的主动形式,这种名词化的动名词有时表示被动意义。例如:

The boy took a beating.那男孩挨了打。   

It was spoilt in the making.这东西在制作过程中被损坏了。   

11、在某些名词词组中,表示动作的名词无疑具有动作的含义,往往可以表现被动意义,而这种被动意义与英语的被动结构无任何语法上的联系。例如:   

After his release from prison,he returned home.他从监狱被释放出来以后回到了家。 His family lived on government aid for three years.他一家靠政府救济生活三年了。





二、语态转换和某些动词的关系   

1、一般以为凡及物动词都有相应的被动句,其实不然,当“主 动 宾”结构的谓语动词是表示状态或特征的及物动词,如contain,cost,fit,have,lack,resemble,suit等,主动句便没有相应的被动句:

Linda resembles her mother.琳达象她母亲。

This red coat becomes her.这件红上衣合她的身。

The auditorium holds 2000 people.大礼堂能容纳两千人。

My shoes don't fit me.我的鞋不合脚。

Jack always lacks confidence.杰克总是缺乏信心。   

但是,状态动词know有相应的被动态:Experts have been known to make this mistake.大家知道,专家也会犯这种错误。   有时,有些不能用于被动语态的状态动词,在同一意义上,如果不用by-词组,可以有被动句。如:All my things are held in this box.这只箱子里装着我所有的东西。   



2、某些被动句没有相应的主动句。例如:   

She was born in Nanjing.她生于南京。   

He was said to be an honest man.据说他是个老实人。   

They will be married next month.他们将于下月结婚。   

Mary said that she was not obliged to work overtime.玛丽说她并不是非加班不可。  



3、当“主 动 宾”结构的宾语为反身代词或相互代词时,通常不能转换为被动句。例如:  The doctor dedicated herself to finding a cure.这位医生为寻求一种治疗方法奉献了她的一生。

Did he hurt himself when he fell?他跌倒时有没有摔伤了自己?   

We could hardly see each other in the fog.在雾中我们彼此几乎看不见。

They told each other about their families.他们互相向对方讲述了各自的家庭情况。



4、用于被动语态的have。 动词have作为“有”的意思时,是状态动词,没有相应的被动态。但是在下列情况中,have有被动语态。

a、作为“被买到(得到)”、“被找到”意思时:

We tried to get a copy of her book,but there was none to be had(to be bought).我们想弄到一本她的书,但就是买不到。

That is about the only work to be had(=to be found) at this time of the year.那大概就是今年此时唯一能找到的工作了。

b、作为“欺(哄)骗”意思时,口语中常用被动态:

I'm afraid you've been had.恐怕你上当了。

He's not the first person that's been had in that way.他并非第一个这样上当受骗的人。

c、作“被贿赂”意思时:   The man was had (=was bribed) into giving them the documents.这人被贿赂,给他们提供了文件。

d、与某些介词或副词构成短语动词时,相当于一个及物动词:

I've been had on (=have been fooled) too often to take his stories seriously.我时常上他的当,不再把他的话当真了。

The young man was had up (=was taken to court)for dangerous driving.这年青人因危险驾车被法庭传讯。

5、有些原来不及物的动词,如果作使役动词来用,那么有被动语态,较常见的有fly,run,stand,walk等。例如:

Many cars have been flown to Europe.许多汽车已被空运到欧洲去了。

This bottle must not be stood close to the fire.这只瓶不得放在近火处。

Horses should be walked for some time after a race.赛马后,得溜一会儿马。



三、被动语态结构与SVC(动词-ed形式作表语)结构的区别

被动语态表示动作,句子主语为动作的对象,SVC结构表示主语的特点或所处的状态,其中的过去分词相当于形容词,be只有一般时态和完成时态。被动结构的时态一般要与相应的主动结构一致。下面把这两种结构作一比较:

1、The library is usually closed at 6.图书馆通常六点关门。(被动语态)

The library is now closed.图书馆关门了。(SVC结构)

2、The bridge was completed in 1968.桥是1968年建成的。(被动语态)

  The bridge is completed.桥已修好。(SVC结构)   

3、The glass was broken by my sister.玻璃杯是我妹妹打破的。(被动语态)

  The glass is broken.玻璃杯破了。(SVC结构)



为了便于考生们的理解,我们再举几个SVC结构的例句:

The gun is loaded.枪装上子弹了。

Your composition is well written.你的作文写得很好。

The door is locked.门锁着。

He was injured in the leg.他腿部受了伤。

综上所述,英语被动语态值得注意的问题很多,我们在学习时,不能仅仅依赖于语法分析,还要多注意上下文以及句子的内含意义,这样才能更好地理解和运用这一语法现象。
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学习被动语态的几个问题:https://www.ryedu.net/syy/dxyy/200612/1412.html