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有关there be 结构  发帖心情 Post By:2009/4/5 21:33:10 [只看该作者]

  考生在英语学习和高考英语复习中会经常碰到有关there be 结构的句子和题目,尤其是高考阅读篇目中的一些长、难句,以及短文改错,书面表达等题目中常有考点出现,故而需要对其结构有一个比较清楚的了解。
  
   一. 基本结构
  
   1.There is a cherry tree in my garden.
   2.There are not any roses in the flower beds.
   3.Is there any book in your schoolbag?
   4.There is no one in the classroom, is there?
   5.There have been so many car accidents in our town recently.
   6. There happened to be nobody in the room.
  
   二. 结构变形与说明:
  
   1. 当我们要表达“在……(地方)存在、有……”时常用there be 结构,其中there 为引导词,动词用be 的某种形式,句子的主语放在谓语的后面。Be动词的单、复数取决于后面的主语,如果有两个或更多的主语,则和be动词最接近的那个主语保持一致,如以上例句1~5。又如:
   There is only a table, four chairs and a small bed in the room.
   2. 句2为该结构的否定形式,一般是在助动词或系动词后加上not而构成,句4为主语否定法。又如:
   There wasn’t any room for this big table in the house.
   There was nothing special for our English study in his lecture.
   3. 句3 为该结构的一般疑问句,即将be动词提到there的前面就可以了。
   4. 句4为该结构的反意疑问句,此时,后面的附加疑问部分要用there 引导,它就像是句子的主语,而且,同样是“前面肯定,后面否定;前面否定,后面肯定”。
   5. 句5是该结构的现在完成时态。根据句意表达的需要,there be 结构可以出现像其他动词一样的时态变化:
   There were many pine trees on the hill.
   There will be a big sandstorm this afternoon.
   There is going to be a basketball match on our playground after class.
   There had been a notice for dismissing him before he returned to the company.
   There would have been a good chance for him if he had followed the teacher’s advice.
   6.句6说明该结构中的动词有时可以根据句意的需要用其他实义动词替换,主要有两种句型:
   A.用动词happen, seem, appear, be likely, be bound 等替代be动词:
   There doesn’t seem to be much hope of our beating that foreign team.
   In carrying out the project, there are likely to be more difficulties than you are prepared for.
   There is bound to be an available way to solve the problem.
   B. 动词live, come, go, stand, occur, lie, ring, rush等常出现在该结构中用来表达一种更生动、更形象具体的含义:
   Once there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea.
   There stands a tall tower on the top of the hill.
   There suddenly rushed into the room a group of small children.
   There came good news that we would have a three-day’s holiday.
   There rings the bell for class.
   7. there be 结构与动词的非谓语形式的连用:
   A. 常用非谓语短语作后置定语:
   There were many people waiting outside the gym just to want to have a look at the famous sports stars.
   There should still be some shops left open at such a late hour.
   You are right, I think. There’s nothing to be ashamed of.
   B. There be结构自身所构成的非谓语短语形式有:there to be 和there being。一般可在句子中作主语、宾语或状语,如:
   ⑴ 作主语:
   There being a bus stop near the house is a great advantage.
   For there to be so many people in the street was unusual.
   ⑵ 作宾语:
   ①介词for后常用there to be:
   They planned for there to be another meeting.
   ②其他介词后常用there being:
   He was disappointed at there being so little to do.
   John was relying on there being another opportunity.
   ③作动词的宾语时, 一般跟在动词expect, like, want, prefer, mean, intend, hate 等后面常用there to be:
   Students don’t want there to be another exam by the end of the term.
   Do you expect there to be any objection to our suggestion?
   ④在动词imagine, appreciate, avoid, mind, excuse等后面常用there being形式:
   You can imagine there being a heated discussion about this matter at the meeting.
   Would you mind there being so little help you can get from me?
   ⑶作状语:
   在句首作状语表示原因、条件、方式时常用there being形式:
   There being no bus, we had to walk home.
   There being another chance, I’ll do it better.
   如果作目的、结果状语,则常用there to be形式:
   In order there to be a more comfortable living house, he decided to buy that flat with a beautiful garden.
   8. 与情态动词的连用:
   There used to be a chemical factory near our school which often sent polluted water.
   There oughtn’t to be too great a difference in our views.

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