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主题:日本饮食文化英文介绍

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日本饮食文化英文介绍  发帖心情 Post By:2010/8/19 17:14:24 [只看该作者]

日本人的主食是米饭,早饭就是米饭和酱汤。也有很多人早饭吃面包。

最近很多美国人也开始喜欢吃米饭、豆腐和生鱼片,美国街头随处可见日本饭馆,可见日本料理在美国受欢迎的程度。因为日本菜的材料主要是鱼和大豆,肉很少,这对健康很有好处。外国人最熟知的日本菜是天妇罗、鸡素烧、寿司、荞麦面条和豆腐等。

天妇罗

天妇罗主要是茄子、南瓜、甘薯等菜类以及虾、鱼等的油炸食品。有一种说法认为“天妇罗”的语源是西班牙语“tempera(温度)”。吃天妇罗时要蘸着一种特制的油,这种油的主要成分是酱油。

鸡素烧

鸡素烧是日本料理的代表之一。古代使用铁锹来做鸡素烧,所以得来这个名字。按照字面意思,“Sukiyaki”就是在铁锹(suki)上面烤牛肉、豆腐和韭菜等蔬菜。调味品用酱油、甜酒和糖等。

寿司

寿司也是日本代表食品之一,其做法是在蒸熟的热米饭里搀上醋、糖和盐。www.ryedu.net

据说寿司本来是给观看歌舞伎的人在幕间休息时吃的小点心。所以饭团被称作“幕之内”(幕和幕之间)。幕之内便当就由此而来。

生鱼片

生鱼片使用的是切成一片片的生鱼肉,日本是世界上少数几个吃生鱼的民族之一。生鱼片里使用的主要是大头鱼、金枪鱼和鲣鱼。这些鱼没有鱼特殊的腥味,因为只使用新鲜的鱼。吃生鱼片时要蘸着酱油,如果加上萝卜丝、生姜和芥末,味道就更美了。

荞麦面条

这也是日本人常吃的食品。很多人一天至少吃一次荞麦面条,还有很多公司工作的人习惯了午饭吃面条。荞麦面条的原料是荞麦粉、小麦粉和鸡蛋,外形很象意大利通心粉。吃荞麦面条时先煮熟,然后蘸上由酱油、盐、甜酒和鲣鱼干做成的汤汁。细长的面条象征着长寿。

豆腐

豆腐的原料是大豆,是古代由中国传来的食品。做豆腐时先用水浸泡大豆12~24小时,然后把已经泡软的大豆磨碎,做成横6cm,竖10cm、高4cm的四角正方体。

大豆磨好以后颜色雪白,呈凝乳状,含有优质植物性蛋白质。有一种叫hiyayako的食品是蘸着酱油、韭菜、生姜等吃的生豆腐。豆腐被切成细条,盛在酱汤碗里。鸡素烧里常常带有这种食品。最近豆腐作为健康食品在欧美也开始流行起来。


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  发帖心情 Post By:2010/8/19 17:14:34 [只看该作者]

Japanese food 日本饮食文化

 

The staple of the Japanese diet is rice, rice and soybean curd soup being common breakfast foods. There are also many people who eat bread for breakfast.

Many Americans now enjoy rice, soybean curd, sashimi, and other Japanese dishes, and the large number of Japanese grocery stores in America indicates the popularity of Japanese food. The reason is that Japanese food mostly consists of fish instead of meat, and also soybeans, and so it is considered good for the health. Foods that are most well received by foreigners are tempura, sukiyaki, sushi, sashimi, buckwheat noodles, and soybean curd.

Tempura

This dish mostly consists of deep-fried eggplant, squash, sweet potato, and other vegetables, along with shrimp and Fish. One theory is that the word tempura came from the Spanish tempera, meaning temperature. Tempura is eaten with a special soy sauce-based dip.

Sukiyaki

Sukiyaki is one of the representative foods of Japan. The naming comes from the farmer’w spade sometimes used to cook on. Sukiyaki refers directly to broiling beef on the spade, along with soybean curd, leeks, and vegetables. The seasoning includes soy sauce, sweet sake, and sugar.

Sushi

Sushi is another food that represents Japanese cuisine, piping hot rice is mixed with vinegar, sugar, and salt. Two major types of sushi are nigiri-zushi originated in the ancient days of Tokyo when it was still called Edo. A rectangle cake of rice is formed, and then a slice of raw fish or other topping is placed on top.

It is said that sushi got its start as a snack eaten at intermissions of kabuki performances. As a result, such rice balls are called maku-no-uchi, a term which directly refers to the intermissions. A common lunch box is also referred to as maku-no-uchi.

Sashimi

Sashimi is the sliced strips of fresh fish, making Japanese one of the few peoples in the world to eat raw fish. The most common types of fish used are sea beam, tuna, and bonito. The fish used in sashimi does not have the smell usually associated with fish because it is always fresh. Sashimi is eaten with soy sauce, enhanced by grated radish, ginger or green Japanese horseradish.

Buckwheat noodles

Buckwheat noodles or soba is also a typical Japanese dish. There are some people that eat soba at least once a day. Many office workers make it a habit to have soba for lunch. Soba noodles are a mixture of buckwheat, flour and eggs. It looks similar to spaghetti in shape. It is first boiled, and then dipped in a soup made of soy sauce, salt, sweet sake, and bonito shavings as it is being eaten. Because soba is long, it is considered a symbol of long life.

Soybean curd

Soybean curd, called tofu is an ingredient originating in china that is made from the soybean. To make tofu, first soak beans in water for about 10 to24 hours. The softened beans are boiled, and then formed into blocks 10cm by 6cm by 4cm.

Soybeans, white and gelatinous, are a rich source of protein. A dish called hiyayako is eaten without cooking it, along with soy sauce, leeks, ginger, and so forth. Tofu is cut into small cubes and eaten in bean paste soup. It’s also used as an ingredient in sukiyaki. Tofu is becoming popular in the United States and Europe as a health food.


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