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主动形式表被动意义  发帖心情 Post By:2009/4/6 10:14:25 [只看该作者]

主动形式表示被动意义 作者:杨时务
先看2008全国卷I第26小题:
   I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good.
   A. to be breathed B. to breathe
  C. breathing D. being breathed
   此题综合考查非谓语动词作状语的用法。to breathe在句中作状语,同句子主语存在逻辑动宾关系,用主动式表示被动意思,因此答案选B。
   一般情况下,在英语中,主动语态表达主动意义,而被动语态表达被动意义。但是,在某些情况下,被动意义却用主动语态的动词形式来表达。
  
   一、动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义
  
   1.在“主语 + 谓语(系动词)+ 表语(形容词)+ to do ”结构中,句子的主语与动词不定式有逻辑上的动宾关系,且形容词表示主语的特征或性质,不定式用主动形式表达被动意义。该结构中常用的形容词有:easy, hard, difficult, important, impossible, interesting, pleasant, nice, comfortable, dangerous, safe, cheap, fit, heavy等。
   The schoolbag seemed heavy to carry.
   The water in the river is unfit to drink.
   Do you think him easy to get along with? Much to my surprise, the driving test is easy to pass.
   What life will be like in the future is difficult to predict.
   2.在“主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + to do”结构中,动词不定式与宾语之间有逻辑上的动宾关系,句子的主语与动词不定式又有逻辑上的主谓关系。因此,用动词不定式的主动形式可以表示被动意义。
   She has an old grandfather to look after.
   The man has a large family to support.
  Have you any homework to do this evening?
   3. 在“主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 + to do”结构中,动词不定式与直接宾语之间有逻辑上的动宾关系。因此,也可以用动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。
   He set us a good example to follow.
   Would you please give me something to eat?
   Please give the child a picture-book to read.
   4.在“主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾补 + to do”结构中,宾语是动词不定式的逻辑宾语,而句子的主语可能是动词不定式的逻辑主语,也可能不是。此时,也用动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。
   I found the fellow hard to get along with. He made his lessons easy to understand.
   5.动词不定式前面可以加上疑问代词构成“疑问代词 + to do”结构。在这个结构中,尽管动词不定式与疑问代词之间存在着逻辑上的动宾关系,却用动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。
   The question is what to do next.
   I don’t know what measures to take to solve this difficult problem.
   6.在“There be”句型中,当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某事时,用动词不定式的主动形式。如果强调事情本身必须要做时,则用动词不定式的被动形式。
   There is a lot of work to do. 有许多工作要(人)去做。(需要人去做工作)
   There is a lot of work to be done. 有许多工作要做。(工作需要被做)
   7. 在“This / That is + 名词 + to do”结构中,如果动词不定式与名词之间有逻辑上的动宾关系,则用动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。
   That is a nice place to visit.
   This is a hard question to answer.
   8.在“there be...”句型中,当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时,不定式用主动或被动式,其含义没有什么区别。
   There is a lot of homework to do (to be done). 有很多家庭作业要做。
   There are some clothes to wash (to be washed). 有些衣服要洗。
  
   二、动名词主动形式表示被动意义
  
   1.在need, require, want(需要)等动词后,后接动名词一般式的主动形式作宾语表示被动意义,相当于不定式的被动式。
   Your coat is very dirty. It really wants washing.
   Tell the workman the house badly requires repairing.
   The library needs cleaning, but it’ll have to wait until Sunday.
   2.be worth 后接动名词的主动式表示被动意义。
   This famous novel is well worth reading.
   His suggestion is not worth considering.
  
   三、动词主动形式表示被动意义
  
   1.英语中有很多动词如write, read, wear, wash, clean, sell, run, open, lock等,当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时,其主动形式常用来表达被动含义。在这种情形下,主语是物,谓语动词常与副词或否定词连用。
   This pen writes quite smoothly.
   The shop opens at eight o’clock.
   Kate’s book reads like an interesting novel.
   The supermarket doors shut automatically.
   This cheese doesn’t cut easily. It’s too soft.
   David told me that the book of this kind sold very well.2.表示感官意义的连系动词如look, feel, smell, taste, sound, prove, appear等,在句子中常表达被动含义。
   Your idea sounds reasonable.
   How nice the music sounds!
   What he said proved to be correct.
   3.不及物动词或短语动词如fail, last, rise, fall, sit, come true, take place, happen, occur, break out, give out, run out, belong to, agree with等,用主动形式表示被动意义。
   What happened to him last night?
   To tell you the truth, the computer doesn’t belong to me.
   Your story agrees with what had already been heard.
   Great changes have taken place in our hometown since 1978.
   4. 当“主+动+宾”结构的谓语动词是表示状态或特征的及物动词,如contain, lack, cost, include, fit, have, resemble, suit等,常用主动形式表示被动意思。
   As is known to us all, sea water contains salt.
   I’m afraid the new dress suits you very well.
   Money was lacking to complete the building.
   Making experiments like this cost much time and labour.
  
   四、介词短语主动形式表示被动意义
  
   1. beyond+名词:beyond control失去控制,beyond comprehension无法理解,beyond compare无可比拟,beyond description难以形容,beyond (all) doubt毫无疑问,beyond expression无法形容,beyond suspicion无可怀疑。
   The children were beyond control. 这些孩子不听管教。
   The passage above is beyond my comprehension 上面这一段我无法理解。
   2. in+名词:in use被使用,in progress 在进行中,in action在运转,in sight看得见,in (good) repair维修良好的,in store贮藏着。
   When was paper in use in China? 中国什么时候开始使用纸币?
   Please do not enter the classroom while a lesson is in progress. 上课时请勿进教室。
   3.under+名词:under construction在建设中, under consideration在考虑中,under arrest被逮捕,under attack受到袭击,under discussion在讨论中,under examination在检查或调查中,under medical treatment在治疗中,under repair在修缮中,under review在检查中,under study在研究中。
   The new music hall is under construction. 新的音乐大厅正在修建中。
   Your proposal is under consideration. 你的提议正在考虑中。
   4. on+名词:on fire 着火,on trial在试用,on sale出售,on display (show exhibition) 在展出。
   The building is on fire. 那幢房子正在燃烧。
   Eve
  ry article on view will be on sale. 每件展品都将出售。
   5. in +名词+ of +名词:in course of在过程……中,in charge of 负责, in possession of 拥有。
   The new railway is in course of construction. 新铁路正在兴建当中。
   The library is in possession of several sets of encyclopaedias. 图书馆有好几套百科全书。
   6. 其他介词短语
   除以上提到的几种情况外,还有一些介词短语也可表示被动意义,如for sale供出售,for rent供出租,at one’s service听凭某人使用,above reproach无可指责,无可非议,above suspicion不受怀疑,above criticism无可指责,within sight看得见。
   We’re always at your service. 我们随时为您效劳。
   Your work is above reproach. 你的工作无可指责。

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