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定语从句六大考点

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2018/5/26

中考英语语法:定语从句是初中英语中一个比较重要的语法项目,同时它也是各地中考英语的一个常考考点。综观近年来各地的中考英语试题,定语从句的主要考点集中在两个方面:一是考查指物的关系代词的用法,二是考查指人的关系代词的用法。另外,它有时也会涉及一些其他的方面,但相对考得比较少。

一、考查指物的关系代词的用法(重点)

当先行词为指物的名词或代词时,引导定语从句的关系代词应用that或which,这是各地中考英语命题涉及最多的一个知识点。如:

1. People often like clothes ______ can make them look young.(湖南株洲中考题)

A. when B. who C. that

分析:C。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词clothes(衣服)是“物”,所以引导定语从句的关系代词用which或that,故选C。

2. The English-Chinese dictionary ______ my father bought for me many years ago is still of great value.(江苏南京中考题)

A. whose B. when C. who D. that

分析:D。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词dictionary(词典)是“物”,所以引导定语从句的关系代词用which或that,故选D。

3. The little boy was wrapping the present ______ would be sent to his teacher.(呼和浩特中考题)

A. who B. / C. what D. that

分析:D。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词present(礼物)是“物”,所以引导定语从句的关系代词用which或that,故选D。

4. —What are you looking for?

—I’m looking for the ring ______ my husband bought me last year.(山东滨州中考题)

A. that B. who C. whom D. it

分析:A。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词ring(戒指)是“物”,所以引导定语从句的关系代词用which或that,故选A。

二、考查指人的关系代词的用法(重点)

当先行词为指人的名词或代词时,引导定语从句的关系代词应用that, who, whom——that和who可用作主语或宾语,而whom只用作宾语。这是各地中考英语命题涉及相当多的一个知识点(从数量上看,比考查指物的关系代词的用法要少一些)。如:

1. I hate people ______ talk much but do little.(山东泰安中考题)

A. who B. which C. whose D. whom

分析:A。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词people(人们)是“人”,同时关系代词在定语从句中作主语,所以要用who,故选A。

2. Most students like the teachers ______ understand them well. (浙江嘉兴中考题)

A. who B. when C. what D. which

分析:A。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词teachers(教师)是“人”,同时关系代词在定语从句中作主语,所以要用who,故选A。

3. Success will belong to those ______ never say “impossible”.(河南中考题)

A. whom B. what C. who D. which

分析:C。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词those(那些人)是“人”,同时在定语从句中作主语,所以引导定语从句的关系代词用who,故选A。

4. —Do you know the girl ______ is helping the old woman.

—Oh, that’s my sister. (贵州黔东南州中考题)

A. whom B. whose C. who D. where

分析:C。考查引导定语从句的关系代词的用法。由于定语从句的先行词girl(女孩)是“人”,同时在定语从句中作主语,所以引导定语从句的关系代词用who,故选A。

三、考查that与which的用法区别(一般重要)

虽然关系代词that和which都可用于引导定语从句,但是它们有一定的区别:

1. 当关系代词直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常要用which(而不用that)。如:

The tool with which he is working is called a hammer. 他干活用的那个工具叫做锤子。

2. 当先行词是下列不定代词或被它们修饰时much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等时,通常用that(而不用which)。如:

All that remains for me to do is to say goodbye. 剩下我所要做的就是告辞了。

They have everything that money can buy. 他们拥有金钱所能买到的一切。

3. 当先行词有the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that(而不用which)。如:

Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

4. 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next等)等修饰时,通常用that(而不用which)。如:

This is the best dictionary that I've ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

5. 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that(而不用which)。如:

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。

6. 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that(而不用which)。如:

They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。

请看以下真题实例:

One of the most delicious drinks ______ I like is orange juice. (湖北十堰中考题)

A. which B. that C. whose D. whom

分析:B。句中的先行词是drinks(饮料),指“物”,按理说,此题选A和B均可。但事实上,此题只能选B,原因就是先行词drinks之前有最高级(the most delicious)修饰。

四、考查whose的用法(偶尔涉及)

关系代词whose在定语从句中主要用作定语,表示它所修饰的名词与先行词之间为所属关系。如:

There are some students whose questions I can’t answer. 有些学生提出的问题我回答不了。

I’d like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 我想要一个窗户面临大海的房间。

值得注意的是,whose既可指人,也可指物,不要误以为它只用于指人。请看一道真题实例:

—There are so many girls over there. Which one is your sister?

—The one ______ hat is yellow.(湖北随州中考题)

A. who B. whose C. that D. which

分析:B。由于空格处所填的关系代词用作定语修饰hat,故选B。“The one whose hat is yellow.”的意思是“戴黄色帽子的那个(是我的妹妹)”。

五、考查关系副词的用法(偶尔考查)

用于引导定语从句的关系副词有三个,即when, where, why,它们分别表示时间、地点和原因,且它们在定语从句分别用作时间状语、地点状语和原因状语。但是从近几年的中考英语试题来看,这类考题涉及得比较少。如:

This is the primary school ______ I studied three years ago.(四川宜宾中考题)

A. where B. when C. that D. which

分析:A。由于受定语从句修饰的名词the primary school(小学)表示地点,所以定语从句用where来引导(同时where在定语从句中用作地点状语)。句意为:这就是我三年前就读的小学。

但是,值得注意的是,不要一看到先行词是表示时间、地点或原因,就以为引导定语从句的一定是关系副词,有时还得要分析关系词在定语从句是用作状语(用关系副词)还是主语或宾语(用关系代词)。请看两道真题实例:

1. There will be a flower show in the park ______ we visited last week.(广东中考题)

A. who B. where C. what D. which

【答案】D。虽然先行词park(公园)表示“地点”,但此空格处不能填where,因为关系词在定语从句中不是用作状语,而是用作宾语(作动词visited的宾语),故此题的答案是D,而不是B。

2. I still remember the time ______ we spent together at Xisai Mountain last year.( 湖北黄石中考题)

A. when B. what C. who D. which

【答案】D。尽管先行词time表示“时间”,但此空格处不能填when,因为关系词在定语从句中不是用作状语,而是用作宾语(作动词spent的宾语),故此题的答案是D,而不是A。

六、综合考查关系代词和其他知识(偶尔考查)

有时命题者会将引导定语从句的关系词与其他知识综合在一起进行考查。这类试题难度很大,同时在中考试题也出现得不多。请看两个实例:

1.—Do you enjoy My heart will go on?

—No, I prefer songs______ loud.(四川达州中考题)

A. that is B. which is C. that are D. what are

分析:C。由于先行词songs指物,所以引导定语从句的关系代词可用that或which,但A、B、C均符合此要求,而不同的是,它们后面所接的谓语动词不同。那么到底该用is还是are呢?同学们此时就要注意先行词是单数还是复数了。对于此题而言,由于先行词songs是复数,所以其后定语从句的谓语也要用复数,故选C。

2. We all like the story about the teacher ______ happened in our school last week. (湖北咸宁中考题)

A. which B. who C. whom D. what

分析:A。初看一眼,同学们很可能认为此题的答案是B,因为定语从句的先行词好像是teacher啊!但是错了,因为teacher(老师)不能happened(发生),而只有story(故事)才能happened(发生),所以真正的先行词是story而不是teacher,由于命题者用about the about将定语从句与先行词分开,导致许多学生误选了B。

【边学边练】

1. I can never forget the stories______ my grandma told me.

A. what B. who C. them D. that

2. Please pass me the cartoon book ______ has a Mickey Mouse on the cover.

A. whom B. whose C. who D. which

3.—What kind of movies do you like?

—I like the move ______ are about Chinese history.

A. who B. whom C. whose D which

4. — What are you looking for?

— I’m looking for the pen ______ my father gave me last week.

A. who B. which C. whose D. whom

5. Steve Jobs is one of the persons ______ founded Apple Computer Company. His death marked the end of an era (时代).

A. who B. whom C. which D. /

6. Mr. Smith ______ is smoking is looking for______ she lost yesterday.

A. whom; which B. who; what C. that; who D. which; where

7. It’s interesting that there are many people ______ speak French in Canada.

A. which B. where C. who

8. I hate people ________ don’t help others when they are in trouble.

A. they B. who C. which D. what

9. The most important thing ________ we should pay attention to is the first thing ________ I have said.

A. which; that B. that; which C. which; which D. that; that

10. The question ________ is written on the blackboard is difficult.

A. who B. which C. what D. whose

参考答案:1—5 DDDBA 6—7 BCBDB

中考英语

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