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含否定意义的常见介词或介词短语

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2018/5/10
  英语中的介词是十分活跃的一类词,其本身没有丰富的词形变化,但在句中起着广泛的联系作用,常可和不同的词语搭配,表示不同的意义。表达否定含义也是其基本功能。观察近年来的高考题,介词beyond 表示“超出、不能”含义的考查可以说“屡试不爽”。请看下面的例子。(为了方便,笔者省去了其中的选项,只保留题干)
  ①I’m sorry it’s beyond my power to make a final decision on the project. 很抱歉,关于这个计划我无权作最后的决定。(2004春季上海)
  ②It’s quite beyond me why such things have been allowed to happen. 我不明白为何让这样的事情发生。(2006高考安徽卷)
  ③This new model of car is so expensive that it is beyond the reach of those with average incomes. 这部新款车很贵,那些普通收入的人购不起。(2006高考江苏卷)
  ④ — why do you suggest we buy a new machine? 你为什么建议我们买新机器?
   — because the old one has been damaged beyond repair. 因为旧的已没法修理。(2008高考江苏卷)
  ⑤The growing speed of a plane is influenced by a number of factors, most of which are beyond our control. 飞机上升的速度受好几种因素的影响,其中大多数因素人无法控制。(2008高考湖南卷)
  ⑥Elizabeth has already achieved success beyond her wildest dreams. 伊丽莎白已经取得成功,这大大出乎她的意料。(2008高考陕西卷)
  ⑦Everybody was touched beyond words after they heard her moving story. 当他们听说了她的感人故事后都感动得说不出话来。(2009高考宁夏卷,全国卷I)
  由beyond 构成的短语还有很多,再如:beyond belief(不相信), beyond dispute(不值得争论), beyond description(难以描述), beyond endurance (受不了) , beyond the price (承受不起价格), beyond recognition(认不出来), beyond one’s comprehension (不能理解), beyond number(难以胜数),beyond one’s understanding(懂不了), 等等。
  其实,中学范围内,表达否定含义的介词还有许多,现将常见这类介词择选如下:
  1.above不会,超出……之外
  A great man is above flattery. 一个伟大的人是不屑于阿谀奉承的。
  Do you consider yourself above criticism? 难道你认为自己是无可指责的吗?
  Hishonestyisabovequestion. 他的诚实不容置疑。
  2. against 不利于
  You are against reason. 你占不住理(你不讲理)。
  Luck is against him. 他运气不佳。
  3. at a loss不知所措
  I am at a loss to recollect his name. 他一下子想不起他的名字。
  I was so surprised that I was at a loss for words. 我太吃惊了,一句话说不出来。
  They were at a loss as to how to meet the situation. 他们惊慌失措,不知道如何应付那种局面。
  4. at an end没有了
  The war was at an end. 战争结束了。
  I must warn you that my patience is almost at an end. 我警告你我几乎没耐心了。
  5. beside不切题,不关正题
  His words were quite beside the point. 他的话没能切中要害。
  What he said is beside the question. 他说的话与这个问题无关。
  6. but for要不是
  But for the rain we should have a pleasant journey. 没有这场雨的话,我们的旅程会更令人惬意。
  But for the traffic jam, we would have arrived earlier. 要不是交通拥堵,我们有可能早点到达。
  7. from使不做……
  She managed to stop him from doing that. 她尽力阻拦他去做那件事。
  I want to save you from making the mistake that I made. 我想让你不再犯我曾经犯过的错误。
  He said he would discouragme from any further adventure of that sort. 他说他将说服我不再冒那样的风险。
  8. far from远非,完全不
  It is far from perfect. 它远非完美。
  The work was far from satisfactory. 这个工作远不能令人满意。
  The art show was far from being a failure; it was a great success. (2009高考天津卷)
  这场艺术决绝不是一次失败,而是一次巨大的成功。
  9. in disregard of 不顾
  In disregard of my warnings, he married her. 他对我的警告不加理会,执意跟她结了婚。
  They adopted the decision in disregard of our repeated warnings. 他们不顾我们再三的警告,采取了那样的决定。
  10. in doubt不清楚,不知道
  His age is in doubt. 他的年龄令人怀疑。
  What he is going to do is still in doubt. 他何时出发还不清楚。
  11. instead of 而不是
  Instead of competing, we cooperate. 我们不是竞争,而是合作。
  12.in the absence of 缺乏,没有
  In the absence of evidence, it is hard to convict him of theft. 没有证据,很难定他有偷盗罪。
  In the absence of the chairman, you will have to preside over the meeting. 主席不在,你只好主持会议。
  13. in the dark 不知道
  I was quite in the dark about this matter. 这件事我一点也不知道。
  They kept the public in the dark about their agreement. 关于他们并未取得一致意见的情况,公众完全被蒙在鼓里。
  14. in vain白白地,徒劳
  All our efforts were in vain. 我们所有的努力都白费了。
  He tried in vain to open the locked door. 他想打开锁着的门,但未能打开。
  15. off不
  I ’m off duty today. 我今天不值班。
  Half of what he said is off the subject. 他说的话一半离题。
  16. out of 没有,不
  The red car is out of gas. 那辆红色轿车没油了。
  You’d better stay out of that affair. 你最好不要去管那件事。
  I’ve been out of touch with them for years. 我多年与他们没有来往了。
  The horse is out of control. 那匹马失去了控制。
  17. past 无法
  The pain is almost past bearing. 疼痛简直难以忍受。
  His mother’s disease is past cure. 他母亲的病无法治。
  18. under不利,不够
  All the children here are under eight. 这里所有的孩子年龄不到八岁。
  The invention was kept under cover until it was patented. 这个发明在取得专利前一直秘而不宣。
  19. without 不,无
  They never met without quarrelling. 他们一见面就吵架。
  The boy couldn’t speak without stuttering continuously. 这个男孩说话总是结结巴巴。
  这样的介词或介词短语还有at fault (出错), before (与其、宁愿) , in spite of (不管) , below (低于) , beneath (不如,在……之下), but (除……之外), except (除……之外), under (在……之下), within (不超出)等等,不再赘述。
作者:司喜强
来源:中学英语之友·高二版 介词和介词短语
介词和介词短语专项训练
介词和介词短语试题解析
介词和介词短语练习解析

含否定意义的常见介词或介词短语

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