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高中英语语法:从句

作者:外语爱好…    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2017-9-9

高中英语语法:从句

一、定语从句(先行词/名词+定语从句)
1. 解题方法:代入法(先行词代入从句中担当成份):根据不同成份,用相应的关系代词或关系副词。
成分:主           宾             表    介+宾         所有         时    地      原因
人:who/that      who/whom/that/-  that  介+whom    whose+n. 
物: which/that     which/that/-      that   介+which    whose+n.      when   where    why
                                                   of which the n.                 for which
                                                   the n. of which
2. 非限制性定语从句:即用逗号与主句或先行词分开,用于补充说明。在非限制性定从中,不能用that。
3. as为关系代词, “正如、就像”的意思, 引导非限制性定从时可置于句首、句中或句末; 引导限制性定语从句时出现在下列词组里such…as…/the same …as…/so…as
4. 一般只用that引导从句的情况:
(1) 限制性定语从句中,当先行词被强调,如被any, every, each, few, little, no, some, the only, the very等修饰时;
(2) 先行词是不定代词all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything等时;
(3) 先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级所修饰时;      
(4) 先行词既有人又有物时;
(5) 当句中已有who时,为避免重复。
5.一般只用which 引导从句的情况: which 替代短语中的that 
during that time- during which time   in that case – in which case
6. 当way作先行词时,可用that, in which或省略引导定从
7.当先行词为situation, case, point, job, condition等且在从句中作状语(介+名)时,常用where引导定从。
8. 当先行词为one of the +复数名词时,定从的谓动用复数动词;
   当先行词为the (only)one of the +复数名词时,定从的谓动用单数动词;
9. anyone who / those who
10.occasion when

二、名词性从句
1. 名词性从句的基本概念:
1) 主语从句:在句中充当主语;亦可用it作形式主语,主语从句置于句末。
It is said that…
2) 宾语从句:在句中充当及物动词或介词的宾语;亦可用it作形式宾语,宾语从句置于句末。I consider it important that…
3) 表语从句:在句中充当系动词的表语。
4) 同位语从句:常置于fact, idea, news, promise, doubt, suggestion, possibility, belief等表示有内容的名词后,起解释、说明作用。
2. 名词性从句考点: 
1) 陈述句语序
2) 含宾从的复合句中,主句和从句的时态保持一致,但如果从句中表示是客观现象,虽然主句是过去时态,从句仍用一般现在时。
3.名词性从句解题办法: 看缺不缺成分.
1)缺少主语、表语、宾语(不指人)时, 常用what 引导。
2)如不缺成份:用that引导,主语从句、同位语从句、表从、介词宾从、第二个宾从、实际主从或宾从不能省略;单个动词宾从可省略引导词that。         
3)只能用whether,不能用if表示“是否”的情况如下:
(1) 在表语从句和同位语从句中;
(2) 在主语从句中,如果用it做形式主语,whether和if都能引导主语从句,否则,只能用whether
It is not decided whether/if he will come to the meeting.
Whether he will come to the meeting is not decided.
(3) 在介词之后;介词+whether
(4) 后面直接跟动词不定式;whether to do
(5) 与or not连用;whether or not
(6) 引导让步状语从句,只能用whether(无论)。Whether … or …..
4.同位语从句与定语从句的区别:
同位语从句:该名词在从句中不充当成份;
One of the men held the view that what the book said was right.
定语从句:先行词在从句中充当成分。
This is the idea I’d like to share with you.


三、状语从句
1. 状语从句的类型
1) 时间状语从句:常见引导词有:
when:“当……时候,这时,既然(在……的情况下)”be about to do when…/进行时+when/be on the point of doing …when
while:“当……时候(表动作延续)”(“而”“虽然”)
as: “当…… 时候”,强调两动作同时进行。(“因为”, “虽然”, “正如”, “和……一样” “随着”)
before “在……前, 才,就”   It will be +一段时间before …
once “一旦”
as soon as: 表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作马上就发生。
hardly / scarcely … when;no sooner … than:表示“还没来得及……就;刚……就”。
directly, immediately, instantly:副词当连词用,表示“一……就”。
the moment, the minute, the second:充当连词,等于when / as soon as。
each time, every time, next time, by the time, the first time, the last time, any time等:也可以引导时间状语从句。
since:主句常用现在完成时,从句常用一般过去时。常用句型:It is + 段时间 + since从句,“自从……有多长时间了”。
until:常与not连用,表示“直到……才……”;
   Not until+从句+主句的倒装句.
   It is/was not until +从句 +that +主句的剩余部分.
   e.g. I didn’t get up until ten o’clock this morning.
2) 让步状语从句:常见引导词有:although(不倒装), though(可倒,也可不倒), as(须倒装,提前形/名(省略冠词)/动/副/分),even if, even though, whether … or…,等。
 e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot.- Child as he is, he knows a lot.
Though he is young, he knows a lot.- Young as he is, he knows a lot.
注: although ,though 可与yet ,still 连用, 不能和but 连用
3) 原因状语从句:常见引导词有:
because:常用于回答why,语气最强;强调原因,常与just, only等起强调作用的副词连用;可引导表语从句。
for:是个并列连词,一般不放在句首,常表示一种推测或解释,或用作附加说明,语气弱。It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.
as, since:“既然、由于”,表示十分明显的原因,语气较弱。
now that:表示“既然”的意思。
Seeing that … , considering that , given that, because of , thanks to , due to , owing to
4) 地点状语从句:常见引导词有:where, wherever等。
5) 目的状语从句: so that, in order that , for fear that , in case , lest+(should) +do
6) 结果状语从句:常见引导词有:that, so that, so … that, such … that …, 等。
7) 方式状语从句:由as, as if(though)+从句/ doing/ done/ to do 等引导。
8) 比较状语从句:由than, as等引导。
9) 条件状语从句:由if +any, possible, so, ever, necessary, if anything, unless, so (as) long as, in case, on condition that, suppose/ supposing, provided/ providing that等引导。
2. 注意:
1) 主将从现规则:在时间状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、方式状语从句中,若主句用一般将来时,或是祈使句,或是含有情态动词的谓语形式,从句则用一般现在时表示将来时,如:You can join our club when you get a bit older.
2) 疑问词 + ever和no matter + 疑问词的区别:疑问词 + ever可引导名词性从句和让步状语从句;no matter + 疑问词,只能引导让步状语从句。
   e.g. 名词性从句     whatever=anything that   任何事
                      whoever=anyone who    任何人
       让步状语从句   whatever =no matter what 无论什么
                      whoever=no matter who 无论谁

初中英语复习:定语从句
定语从句与名词性从句
高中英语语法:否定转移
高考定语从句易错题精选
高考英语语法:定语从句

高中英语语法:从句
高中英语语法:从句
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