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任务型阅读信息转换题解题

作者:吴明山    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2017-2-12

高考英语任务型阅读信息转换题解题
  信息转换题顾名思义是难以从文章中直接地获得,而要依据文章中话语的含义进行反复地推敲才能获取,这是任务型阅读的难点之一,也是学生极易失分的地方。许多学生仅仅局限于从文章话语中去妄加推测,常常死搬硬套地直接从文章中找出相应的词汇填入后面的表格中,其结果必然会导致失误。如何才能正确地填词,本文在此将学生练习中出现的一些信息转换的形式加以归纳和比较,使学生能明确应如何依据文章中的表达内容去进行合理的转换。
  一、相同意义短语间的转换
  在英语中有时常常会碰到一些短语的表达,而这些短语又可以用其他的形式去替换,因此在解题时应首先吃透原文中短语的意思,并对照表格中的结构进行合理的转换,以确保填词的正确性。
  1. When doing the financial transaction for the sale, insist on a cash payment, or cashers check.
  to a cash payment or cashers check when doing financial transaction.
  该句中的关键短语insist on意为“坚持”的意思,而表格中所提供的结构则是另外的形式,因此要明确哪一个短语可以替换insist on,由表格中空格后的介词to可知此处应填“Stick”,从而与上句构成意义上的一致。
  2. The use of these resources cannot go on indefinitely—we would run out.
  The use of these resources cant be replaced and they would be up.
  原文论述了自然资源不可再生,我们将会用完。句中的关键短语为run out,而表格中却换用其他表达形式,由空格后所提供给的词汇up和前面的be可以判断该词应填“used”, 与文章中的run out异曲同工。
  3. Another concern is that as medical expenses increase with age, the demands of the growing aged population will eventually lead to medical schemes to face bankruptcy.
  The demands of the growing aged population will eventually in the bankruptcy of medical schemes.
  对照表格的设计可以看出原文中的关键词为lead to,与之意义相近的短语有contribute to, result in或动词cause等。从表格后的空格所提供的词汇in可以判断此处应填“result”才能与原文中的意义对等。
  4. Finally, an important step to ensure a bright future for all is to do away with negative stereotypes that see valuable members of society only as pensioners or patients.
  People should get of negative stereotypes that see valuable members of society only as pensioners or patients.
  阅读原文的句子可以知晓,其关键的短语是do away with意为“废除”的意思。而表格的设计则是以get开始,并与后面的介词of构成了固定的短语,由此可以确定此空格应填“rid”才能与原句的意思一脉相承。
  通过上述的几例可以看出,在英语中有许多的短语在意义上常常可以替换使用,而命题者也常常会把一些意义相近的短语呈现于任务型阅读的设计中。因此在复习时学生应将某些意义相近的短语进行归纳才能有备无患。如:make use of与take advantage of;take part in与participate in;be made up of与 consist of 等这些短语中的advantage,participate,consist等词都是命题者在设计时常考虑的词汇。


  二、不同结构话语间的转换
  在任务型阅读这类题型的文章中,作者常常会用某一句话来阐述事物的特点或性质,而在表格中则会以另外一种形式加以表达,因此学生应特别注意原文中某个重要的词汇,因为所需填的词汇很可能就是对该词的扩展或转换,此时应认真对照原文的意思进行反复地推敲,才能填上正确的词汇。
  1. Behavioral scientists have done countless experiments to prove that people have a tendency to repeat an act which has been immediately followed by a pleasant result.
  Findings of experiments on profits of praise: Everybody to repeat an act if praised more often.
  根据文中句子的含义可以判断其关键的话语在于have a tendency,意为“有一种倾向”,而表格中只能填一个单词,而所填的词汇根据前面的主语Everybody可以确定应是动词形式,由此可以确定应填“tends”才能与文章中的意思吻合。这样的填词既考查了学生对话语的理解,也考查了学生语言运用的能力。
  2. Perhaps its because few of us know how to accept praise gracefully. Instead, we are embarrassed and ignore the words we are really so glad to hear.
  Reasons for unwillingness to give praise: We feel embarrassed and ignore the words pleasant to our ears than accept them gracefully.
  阅读原文的句子可以确定整个句子中的关键词是Instead,而对照表格中的话语以及空格后的词汇than可以明确是表示转折的关系,因此此处应填“rather”, 才能与上面句中的Instead一脉相承。因此在阅读文章时应留神某些关键的词汇,做到形式与意义的一致性,才能确保其正确性。
  3. A new study suggests that early exposure to germs helps make the immune system become strong.
  Early exposure to germs the immune system.
  根据文章句子的含义“一项新的研究表明早期暴露于细菌之中有利于免疫系统更强”。该句的关键词汇是become strong,而表格中却以更为简洁的形式加以论述,因此应考虑如何才能用合适的词汇表达出become strong的意思,而实义动词“strengthens”恰到好处地表达了此意。


  4. You are expected to know that every step counts and that setting up goals is easy, but following them on a consistent basis is difficult.
  You should be that its difficult to follow your goals consistently.
  要想在该空格上填上恰当的词汇实属不易,因为在原句中难以找到与之意义相近的词汇,因此许多学生不假思索地将原句中的counts填入空格,而由对照表格中的should be可发现这显然不妥,因为前面是be,由此可确定此处应填形容词,通过句中的are expected to know可判断应填conscious才能与之在意义上接近。
  5. Official statics show that at the primary stage, there are a big number of rural students, who drop out of school because they dont have the money to pay their tuition fees.
  A large number of rural primary school students have to quit school because they cant to pay for their education.
  阅读该句可知填词的依据应放在dont have the money to pay their tuition fees上,对照表格设计中的cant可以看出此处应填动词原型,而且要与pay their tuition fees的意思不谋而合,所以通过斟酌可以确定应填“afford”才能与原文的句意相辅相成。

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任务型阅读信息转换题解题
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