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高考英语长难句解题技巧

作者:杨定生    文章来源:中学课程辅导高考版    更新时间:2016-11-25

“去枝叶留主干移位置”破解长难句
  随着词汇量和阅读量的增加,不少学生本以为阅读应无多大困难,但事实却相反,更会经常遇到许多又长又难以理解的句子。如何破解这一困境:
  (一) 了解长难句的成因
  一般来说,造成长难句的原因有: (1) 过多的修饰语;(2) 多并列成份; (3) 语言结构层次多。

  (二) 掌握破解理解长难句的基本方法
  1. 要掌握英语句式的基本结构和基本句式
  1) 简单句的五种基本句型:(其他各种句子都可由这些基本句型扩展或变化而成。)
  ① 主语+系动词+表语如:He is a student.
  ② 主语+不及物动词如:We work.

   ③ 主语+及物动词+宾语如:Henry bought a dictionary.
  ④ 主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语)如:My father bought me a car.
  ⑤ 主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补)如:Tom made the baby laugh.


  2) 句子种类
  (1) 按句子的用途可分为四种:
  A. 陈述句(肯定、否定)
  如:He is six years old.
  She didnt hear of you before.


  B. 疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)
  如: Do they like skating?
  How old is he?
  Is he six or seven years old?
  Mary can swim, cant she?


  C. 祈使句
  如:Be careful, boys.
  Dont talk in class.


  D. 感叹句
  如:How clever the boy is!
  (2) 按句子的结构可分三种:
  A. 简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)。
  如:He often reads English in the morning.
  Tom and Mike are American boys.
  She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.
  B. 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。
  如:You help him and he helps you.
  The future is bright; the road is tortuous.
  并列句的分类
  ① 表示连接两个同等概念,常用and, not only... but also..., neither... nor..., then, as well as等连接。
  如:The teachers name is Smith, and the students name is John.
  ② 表示选择,常用的连词有or, either... or..., otherwise, or else, rather than等。
  如:Hurry up, or youll miss the train.
  ③ 表示转折,常用的连词有but, still, however, yet, while, when等。
  如:He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting.
  ④ 表示因果关系,常用的连词有so, for, therefore, then, thus等。
  如:August is the time of the year for rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.
  C. 主从复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。主从复合句包含:一个主句以及名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)、定语从句和状语从句等。
  如:Whether he will come or not doesnt matter much.(主语从句)
  He asked me which team could win the game.(宾语从句)
  The problem is (that) they cant get here so early.(表语从句)
  I made a suggestion that he (should) go there at once.(同位语从句)
  The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.(状语从句)
  2. 掌握英语句子的基本结构、句式和句子的类型,用以分析长难句的构成:
  分析长难句, 不妨按照“去枝叶留主干移位置”的方法并按照以下的步骤来进行:
  1) 找出全句的主语、谓语和宾语,从整体上把握句子的结构,搞清楚句子的“主干”。
  2) 找出句中所有的修饰成分,如形容词、副词、非谓语动词、介词短语等,搞清楚他们各自的作用,这些都是句子的“绿叶”。
  3) 分析句子的语法功能,是并列句还是复合句,是名词性从句还是定语从句、状语从句等, 这些都是 句子的“树枝”。
  4) 注意插入语等其他成分及某些次要成分的特殊用法和含义。
  5) 注意句子是否有特殊的结构,如倒装、强调等。


  (三)例析
  例析①The gravity of the situation shocked Bob Geldof, an Iris musician, so he organized a charity concert called Live Aid to raise money for the victims of hunger in Ethiopia.(p.2 M10)
  在上述句中, an Iris musician 为Bob Geldof 的同位语,说明他的身份。因此 该句可简化为: The gravity of the situation shocked Bob Geldof。


  而连词so连接一个并列句,表结果。该句意为“he organized a charity concert”,而 a charity concert 后的called Live Aid 为过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰说明a charity concert,同时后面还有动词不定式短语to raise money for the victims of hunger in Ethiopia作为he organized a charity concert的目的状语(为何组织音乐会)。在分析了该句后就不难理解该句的基本意义:
  这一情况的严重性使爱尔兰音乐家鲍勃·格尔多夫感到震惊。因此,他组织了一场名为“Live Aid (现场援助)”的慈善音乐会,为埃塞俄比亚饥荒受难者募集资金。


  例析②The WFP has organized a number of programmes, including the FoodLife programme, which sends emergency food aid to countries during times of trouble; the FoodforGrowth programme, which targets people most at risk, such as babies, pregnant women and old people; and the FoodforWork programme, which helps people without jobs support themselves by giving them work and paying them in food aid. (p.2, M10)
  该句虽长但主干却很短:The WFP has organized a number of programmes。而including 后则有三个并列的内容并且各带有一个非限制性定语从句说明programme:

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四六级复杂长难句分析

高考英语长难句解题技巧
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