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高考介词考点

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2008-11-24
1.介词的分类
  (1)简单介词如:at,by,for,from,in,of,on…
  (2)复合介词如:into,onto,within,out of…
  (3)双重介词 如:from under,since before,until after…
  (4)短语介词如:in front of,because of,ahead of,according to…
  另外,有的介词可以兼作副词(如:around,over等),有的介词可以兼作连接词(如:after,before等)。
  2.介词短语在句中的作用
  (1)作定语
  例如:The man in black is Mr Zhang.穿黑衣服的人是张先生。
  He is a man of wealth.他是个有钱人。
  China is a country with a long history.中国是历史悠久的国家。
  (2)作表语
  例如:He was already in his forties.他已经四十多岁了。
  You must remain in bed.你必须得卧床休息。
  He was against slavery.他反对奴隶制。
  (3)作补足语
  例如:I found everthing in good condition.我发现一切状况良好。
  Eevn his way of walking down the street and turning a corner could be recognaized as his own.
  甚至他在街上走路时和在拐角处转弯时的那种姿态,都可以认为是他独有的动作。
  The heavy rain kept us inside the house.(大雨使得我们待在了家里。)
  (4)作状语
  例如:At seventeen,he began to learn acting.
  十七岁时,他开始学习表演。(时间状语)
  We put the play on in a theatre.
  我们在剧院上演这出戏。(地点状语)
  We jumped with joy.
  我们高兴得跳了起来。(原因状语)
  He returned home for his dictionary.
  他回家去取字典。(目的状语)
  We went there by bike.
  我们骑自行车去那儿的。(方式状语)
  In spite of the heavy rain,they arrived.
  尽管雨下得大,他们还是到了。(让步状语)
  3.关于介词值得注意的几个问题
  (1)同一个介词的不同用法和意义,用at为例。
  (A)表示地点,在……They are waiting for me at the gate.
  (B)表示时间,在……时(刻) We usually get up at half past five every morning.
  (C)表示状态,(正)在……中The Browns are at table.
  (D)表示速度、价格,按……The truck ran at 40 miles an hour.
  (E)表示动作对象、目标、向……Bob threw a stone at a dog.
  (F)表示原因,由于…… He was surprised at his friend’s rudeness.
  (G)表示能力,擅长于…… My sister is good at painting.
  (2)同一介词跟不同动词构成不同意义的短语动词,以on为例。
  (A)I hope to call on you in your office this afternoon.(拜访)
  (B)We live on our salary.(依靠……生活)
  (C)The price depends on quality.(依赖)
  (D)He insisted on her staying in London.(坚持要)
  (E)The doctor operated on her chest yesterday.(给……动手术)
  (F)Put on your coat before you go out.(穿上)
  (G)The village has taken on a new look.(呈现)
  (3)同一动词跟不同介词构成不同意义的短语动词,以look为例。
  (A)He looked about him but saw no one.(环顾)
  (B)The boy is old enough to look after himself.(照料)
  (C)Look at the photo,please.(看)
  (D)What are you looking for?(寻找)
  (E)I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible.(调查)
  (F)I looked through today’s newspaper but I found nothing important in it.(浏览)
  (G)You should learn how to look up word in a dictionary.(查阅)
  (4)正确区分介词to和动词不定式符号to。
  The murderer was sentenced to death.(介词)
  The coffee in the cup is too hot to drink.(动词不定式符号)
  (5)几种特殊的介词宾语。
  (A)不定式作宾语:I desire nothing but to have a quiet room to study in.
  (B)形容词作宾语:Although Spring has come,it is still quite cold instead of warm.
  (C)副词作宾语:His father is fresh from abroad.
  (D)介词短语作宾语:He has lived in Beijing since before liberation.
  (E)由what,when,where,how等引导的从句作宾语(that从句例外):
  (6)不要遗漏介词:
  (A)不定式作定语修饰名词时,若该名词在逻辑上与其有动宾关系,不及物动词要有相应的介词。
  Give me a piece of paper to write on.
  (B)不定式在enough…to…句型中作结果状语时,若句子的主语在逻辑上与其有动宾关系,不及物动词要有相应的介词。
  No bed is big enough for him to sleep on.
  (C)在定语从句中,若关系代词是从句谓语动词的宾语,而这个动词又是不及物的,或者介词与关系代词一起表示时间、地点、工具时,都要有相应的介词。

I don’t know the person my father nodded to just now.
  I shall never forget the day on which I saw Premier Zhou for the first time.
  (D)在短语动词中,介词是固定的,不能随意变换,也不能省略。
  4.容易混淆的几组介词举例
  (A)after指以过去为起点的过去一段时间,跟过去时态连用,in指以现在为起点的将来一段时间,跟一般将来时连用。
  He came back after three days.三天后他回来了。
  He will come back in a week.一星期后他将回来。
  (B)after指某个特定的未来时刻或日期之后,跟将来时连用。
  I’ll be free after 5 o’clock.五点钟以后我有空。
  He will come here after May 6th.五月六日后他要来这里。
  (C)以将来(不是现在)某一时间为起点的若干时间之后,也可用after。
  I’ll call on him next Monday and I’ll call again after two weeks.
  (2)for,since,by,during
  for表示某一动作延续到讲话时候为止,可以和完成时态连用;since其后跟表示时间的词语,多与完成时态连用,意思是从那个时候到讲话的时候;by表示时间上的界限,常与完成时和将来时连用,作“到……为止”解;during既可表示一段时间,又可表示这段时间内的某一点,意思是“在……期间”。
  They have stayed here for two months.他们在这儿待了两个月。
  Where have you been since I last saw you?自从上次见面后,你去哪儿了?
  By the end of last term,we had learned 500 English words.到上学期末,我们学了五百个英语单词。
  They swim every day during the holidays.假期他们每天游泳。
  (3)by,with,in
  by表示“以……方式、方法、手段”等,也可用来泛指某种交通工具;with表示“以……工具、手段”等,一般接具体的手段和工具;in表示“以……方式”或“用……语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)”等。
  Did you come by train or by air?你是坐火车还是乘飞机来的。
  I killed the spider with a newspaper.我用报纸打死了蜘蛛。
  It’s written in ink.这是用墨水写的。
  (4)in,on,to
  in表示B在A的范围内;on表示B与A相毗邻;to表示B在A的范围之外。
  Japan lies to the east of China.日本在中国的东方。
  China is in the east of Asia.中国在亚洲的东部。
  I live in a town on the river.我住在临河的一个小镇上。
  (5)across,over,through
  across表示从一边到另一边,“横过”的意思;over表示跨过一段距离,“越过”的意思;through表示通过一个空间,“穿过”的意思。
  The dog swam across the river. 狗游过了河。
  There is a short cut over the field.有一条小路穿过这片原野。
  Light comes in through the window.光透过窗户射进来。
  (6)besides,except,except for
  besides含有“加”的关系,表示“除……之外,还(包括)……”,属于肯定性质;except含有“减”的关系,表示“所有都(如此)……除了……之外”,属于否定性质;except for表示在说明基本情况后,而在细节上加以修正,其后面的宾语与句中所涉及的内容并非同类。
  Fifteen students went there besides Tom.
  除了汤姆之外,还有15个学生去了那儿。(汤姆也去了,共16个。)
  Fifteen students went there except Tom.
  除了汤姆之外,有15个学生去了那儿。(共15人,汤姆没有去。)
  Your composition is good except for some spelling mistakes.
  除了一些拼写错误外,你的作文很好。
  5.介词使用特例
  在下列情况下,表示时间的状语作状语时前无介词:
  (1)以next或last开头的短语
  例如:We are meeting next Tuesday.我们下周二见面。
  He stayed with us last week.上周他和我们在一起。
  (2)以this或that开头的短语
  例如:What are you doing this evening?你今天晚上要做什么?
  He was coming to give a talk that very evening.在那天晚上他要来做报告。
  (3)以tomorrow或yesterday开头的短语,包括the day after tomorrow和the day before yesterday
  例如:I have to get up very early tomorrow morning.明天早上我得早起。
  She had her operation the day before yesterday.她前天接受了手术。
  (4)以one,any,each,every,some开头的短语
  例如:Then one year,the rains failed to come.然后有一年没有下雨。
  You can come any day you like.你愿意哪天来就哪天来。
  Every morning,the newspaper chief editor holds a meeting with the journalists.
  每天上午,报社主编都召集记者们开会。
  Some day,we will meet again.总有一天,我们会见面。
  Plants grow well all the year round.植物一年到头都长得很好。
  (5)以most开头的短语
  例如:Most of the time,we eat fish.大部分时间,我们吃的是鱼。
  考题精讲
  1.上海 2003
  The confernce has been held to discuss the effects of tourism_________the wildlife in the area.
  A.in    B.on    C.at    D.with
  解析:本题考查名词与介词的搭配使用问题,根据句中effects这个名词,选择on,表示“对……有影响”,故排除A、C、D项,选B项。
  

 答案:B。
  2.广东 2004
  I feel that one of my main duties_________a teacher is to help the students to become better learners.
  A.for    B.by    C.as    D.with
  解析:as此处理解成“作为”。
  答案:C。
  3.the foot of the hill there is a beautiful lake and_________the top of it there is a tower.
  A.At;in    B.At;on    C.In;at    D.On;at
  答案:B
  解析:在山脚下要用介词at,而在山顶既可用at,也可用on。
  4.He will spend his holidays_________ National Day.
  A.at    B.for    C.after    D.it
  答案:C。
  解析:after与“在某一特定时间”的词语连用时,句子谓语动词既可用过去时,也可用将来时。此句可以把National Day当作一个特定的时间。意思是“他要在国庆节后度假。”
  名题精练
  1.—How long has this bookshop been in business?
  —_________1982.
  A.After    B.In    C.From    D.Since
  2.We offered him our congratulations_________ his passing the college entrance exams.
  A.at    B.on    C.for    D.of
  3.American women usually identify their best friend as someone_________they can talk frequently.(2004·上海)
  A.who        B.as
  C.aboutwhich    D.whith whom
  4.Everyone enjoyed the party_________May Day,that is to say,_________this Saturday.
  A.on;on    B.at;on
  C.at;in    D.on;/
  5.What kind of animal can live both_________land and_________water?
  A.on;on    B.in;on    C.on;in    D.in;in
  6.The coffee shop is_________she street.
  A.on    B.across    C.in    D.to
  7.Let’s walk over_________ the sun on the other side of the street.
  A.to    B.below    C.under    D.by
  8.In this matter,I’m sorry that I have to sideyou.
  A.at    B.to    C.against    D.with
  9.We normally use the front entrance_________ the building but there is another entrance_________the back.
  A.to;to    B.at;at
  C.to;at    D.of;in
  10.The police have said that there is no connection_________the murders.
  A.in    B.for    C.on    D.between
  11.To my horrow,I saw,_________my father’s shoulder,a gorilla.
  A.on    B.above    C.over    D.from
  12.My first customer was a girl_________a red dress.
  A.of    B. with    C.on    D.in
  13.How long have you been up?
  five o’lock.
  A.After    B.In    C.on    D.in
  14.What language did you talk with the foreigner_________ ?
  A. /    B. in    C. with    D. by
  15. He will always be remembered_________ one of the greatest teachers of the Chinese people.
  A. by    B. as    C. like    D. for
  16. —Where did you go_________ your holiday?
  —I went to Hainan province.
  A. to    B. for    C. in    D. on
   17. I stepped_________ the bus and_________ the snowstorm,but I was often_________ the highway.
  A. from;into;on    B. out of;into;off
  C. out of;in;in    D. off;through;from
  18. He showed me a photo of the hotel he stayed_________ .
  A. where    B. there
  C. in it    D. in
  19. The camel was blind_________the right eye and only ate the grass_________ the left side.
  A. on;in    B. in;on
  C. in;at    D. at;on
  20. Ideas_________what are good manners are not always the same_________ different countries.
  A. of;in    B. about;from
  C. by; among    D. on;

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