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without的用法

作者:陈根花    文章来源:中学生    点击数:    更新时间:2008-10-22
一、without基本用法
  
  1.(表否定)没有,无,不需
  The letter was posted without a stamp. 那封信没贴邮票就寄出去了。
  We got there without any trouble. 我们到了那儿,一路上没遇到任何麻烦。
  You’ll get wet if you go out in the rain without an umbrella. 雨天外出不带伞会淋湿的。
  I suddenly realized I’d come out without any money. 我突然意识到,一点儿钱也没带就出来了。
  2.(用在no, not, never等否定副词之后,强调肯定)没有……不,没有……则不能……,每……必定……
  You can’t get rich without taking risks. 人不冒险不富。
  The old man cannot walk without a stick. 那位老先生离开手杖就走不了路。
  Don’t go out without a coat: you’ll catch your death. 别不穿外套出去,会得重感冒的。
  I never see this picture without thinking of him. 每次看到这张照片,我都会想起他。
  3.(与 -ing 形式连用)不,无,没
  She entered the room without knocking. 她没敲门就进了房间。
  It goes without saying that health is above wealth. 健康胜于财富,这个道理是无需多说的。
  They had to stand for hours without changing position. 他们得一动不动地站几个小时。
  It wasn’t very polite of you to serve yourself without asking. 你也不问一声就自己吃起来是不太礼貌的。
  4. (表条件)若无,若非
  I don’t like to go to a country without knowing something of the language. 我要是不懂得一点那个国家的语言,就不想到那个国家去。
  Without water, we cannot live. 没有水,我们就活不了。
  Can you see without your glasses?你不戴眼镜能看得清东西吗?
  
  二、without作表语的用法
  
  without 引出的介词短语通常用作状语或定语,但有时也可用作表语。如:
  She is completely without shame. 她恬不知耻。
  My investigations were without result. 我的调查毫无结果。
  The houses in this village are without water. 这个村子里家家户户都没有自来水。
  We were without electricity for three hours but it’s on again now. 我们的电停了3小时,现在又有了。
  
  三、without后接复合宾语的用法
  
  without 后接复合宾语的常用结构如下。
  1. without+宾语+副词
  I’d be lost without you here. 没有你在这儿,我会一筹莫展。
  I’m very near-sighted without my glasses on. 我要是不戴眼镜,就十分近视。
  2. without+宾语+介词短语
  We’d be better off without them as neighbors. 要是没有这些邻居,我们就过得更愉快了。
  I don’t like sweet coffee;I like it better without sugar in it. 我不喜欢加糖的咖啡,里边不加糖我更喜欢。
  3. without+宾语+动名词
  Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 无人注意,他从窗户溜了出去。
  They debated for hours without a decision being taken. 他们争论了几个小时,也没作出决定。
  4. without+宾语+不定式
  Without anyone to help, how can we go on?没有人帮忙,我们怎么能进行下去?
  It was boring to sit there without anything to do. 无所事事地坐在那里太无聊了。
  5. without+宾语+过去分词
  Without another word exchanged, they started off. 没有再交谈一句,他们就出发了。
  
  四、without用于虚拟语气
  
  without 有时可表示条件,引出虚拟语气,与 but for 大致同义。如:
  Without appropriate software, a computer would be a mere box. 如果没有恰当的软件,电脑只是一个空盒子罢了。
  Without you, our project wouldn’t have succeeded. 如果没有你的话,我们的计划就无法成功了。
  Life would be quieter without the telephone. 要是没有电话,生活就会清静一些了。
  Without your advice I would have failed. 假若没有你的劝告,我想必已失败了。
  五、without A and B 与 without A or B
  两者基本同义,相当于 without A and without B,即同时否定 A、B 两者。如:
  We were cast away by the storm on an island without food or water. 我们被风暴丢弃在小岛上,没有食物,也没有淡水。
  I found myself in a strange place without money or friends. 我发现自己身处一个陌生的地方,既无钱财,又无朋友。
  We cannot survive for long without food and [or] water. 我们没有食物和水就活不了多久。

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