您现在的位置: 外语爱好者网站 >> 英语 >> 英语教学 >> 正文

巧解高考英语阅读理解题

作者:康传桂    文章来源:中学课程辅导高考版    更新时间:2017-1-28

掌握推理判断规律,巧解阅读理解试题
推理判断题就是要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定的推理判断,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理判断题所涉及的内容可能是文中的某一句话,也可能是某几句话,所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息进而推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写或综合概括。
  在推理判断题的题干中通常含有infer, suggest, imply, conclude, indicate等标志性词语。 这种题型主要包括细节判断题、态度观点推断题、写作意图推断题、文章出处判断题和猜测想象推断题,具体的设问规律有:
  A. 推断文章出处的设题形式有:
  1) The passage is most likely to be taken from .
  2) Where would this passage most probably appear?
  3) The passage is most likely a part of.
  B. 推测文章的观点或结论的设题形式有:
  1) It can be inferred from the passage that .
  2) What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?
  3) From the passage we can conclude that .
  C. 推测作者写作目的或意图的设题形式有:
  1) The purpose in writing this text is to .
  2) The author writes this passage to .
  3) The author in this passage intends to .
  D. 逻辑排序题的设题方式:
  1) Which of the following describes ones logic in doing sth.?
  2) Which of the following shows the correct order of what happened to...?
  E. 是非判断题的设题方式:
  1) Which of the following is (not)true or false?
  2) All of the following statements are wrong except .
  3) All of the following statements are right / true except .
  4) Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage / text?
  如何做英语阅读理解推理判断题解呢?这当然要根据阅读后面的设题来考虑,就是看看是什么样的要求;具体可能见到的题型和解决的技巧如下:
  A. 写作意图推测判断题:此题型要求考生根据文章的论述,推测作者的写作意图及运用某种写作手法的目的。作者一般不直接陈述自己的意图,而是通过文章所提供的事实和形象,客观地使读者信服某种想法或意见。这种题型要求考生们不但能理解文章的内容,同时还要具备对作者阐述问题的写作方法进行归纳总结和分析的能力。
  B. 细节推断判断题:要求考生根据语篇关系,推断具体细节,如时间、地点、人物关系、事件等。一般可根据短文提供的信息,或者借助生活常识进行推理判断。
  C. 预测想象推理判断题:有些内容文章中没有明确说明,要求考生根据语篇,对事件可能的结局或下段可能涉及的内容等进行预测推理。做这类题时应把握作者的写作思路,即:文章可能按事件发展的经过描写,也可能按因果关系、对比关系来叙述。立足已知,推断未知,从而做出比较科学的、合情合理的预测。不能主观臆想,随意揣测,更不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点。
  D. 因果推断题:要求考生根据已知结果推测导致结果的可能原因。考生要准确掌握文章的内涵,理解文章的真正含义。
  E. 人物态度及观点判断题:阅读测试中有些是考查考生对作者的主要思想、被描写人物语气、言谈话语中流露的情绪、性格倾向和作者或文中人物态度、观点等方面的理解题。做这一类题时一定要注意:由表及里地准确把握字里行间的意思,切勿用自己的主观想法或观点代替作者的思想观点;特别注意那些描写环境气氛的语言,以及表达感情、态度观点的词语。要注意作者在文章中的措词,尤其是表达感情色彩的形容词。结合自己平时积累的有关英语国家的文化传统、风俗习惯等背景知识来判断。
  英语阅读理解的推理判断题的推理也不是像侦破案中的那么复杂,所以,一般都是简单推理,就是以表面文字为前提,以具体事实为依据进行推理,做出判断。这种推理方式比较直接,只要弄清事实,即可结合常识推断出合理的结论。 如:
  When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years from now, how could they even begin to picture modern life? Yet to men of 50,000 years from now, we may seem as primitive (原始的) in our ideas as the StoneAge hunters do to us. Perhaps they will spend their days gollocking to make new spunders, or struggling with their ballalators through the cribe. These words, which I have just made up, have to stand for things and ideas that we simply cant thin
  Question:The text discusses men and women 50,000 years ago and 50,000 years from now in order to show that .
  A. human history is extremely long
  B. life has not changed a great deal
  C. it is useless to plan for the next 50,000 years
  D. it is difficult to tell what will happen in the future
  从段首 When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life? 可推出:生活在今天的人们要想像50,000 年以后会发生什么,当然也是困难的。答案选D 。
  除了这种简单的推理判断外,有时为了考出考生的英语水平,设题会拐弯抹角的,这就是有的复杂的推理判断了。这种所谓复杂推理不但要以文字为依据,而且还要以文章的语境、内涵为前提。这是一种间接而复杂的逻辑推理方式。考生要推断出文章没有表明但又合乎逻辑的推理,就必须由表及里地归纳或演绎。
  请见江苏高考题:
  Freedom and Responsibility
  Freedoms challenge in the Digital Age is a serious topic. We are facing today a strange new world and we are all wondering what we are going to do with it.
  Some 2,500 years ago Greece discovered freedom. Before that there was no freedom. There were great civilizations, splendid empires, but no freedom anywhere. Egypt and Babylon were both tyrannies, one very powerful man ruling over helpless masses.
  In Greece, in Athens (雅典), a little city in a little country, there were no helpless masses. And Athenians willingly obeyed the written laws which they themselves passed, and the unwritten, which must be obeyed if free men live together. They must show each other kindness and pity and the many qualities without which life would be very painful unless one chose to live alone in the desert.The Athenians never thought that a man was free if he could do what he wanted. A man was free if he was selfcontrolled. To make yourself obey what you approved was freedom. They were saved from looking at their lives as their own private affair. Each one felt responsible for the welfare of Athens, not because it was forced on him from the outside, but because the city was his pride and his safety. The essential belief of the first free government in the world was liberty for all men who could control themselves and would take responsibility for the state.

[1] [2] 下一页

提高阅读理解应试能力
2007年高考英语之阅读理解
高考英语阅读理解练习题
高考英语阅读理解应试技巧
高考英语复习:阅读理解

巧解高考英语阅读理解题