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我是布莱克英文介绍

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2017-8-13

我是布莱克英文介绍
 1.肯·洛奇电影新作《我是布莱克》的成功及其引发的争议
  肯·洛奇(Kenneth/“Ken” Loach, 1936— ),是当代英国为数不多的关注下层社会小人物和贫困现象的独立现实主义导演[另一位则是迈克尔·李(Michael Leigh)]。他的电影以批判不公正的英国社会来映射他的社会主义政治理想,导演风格则是新现实主义的,例如反映小人物的日常生活、喜怒哀乐和他们在英国社会遭受的不公正待遇,使用非职业演员即兴出演他们本身的角色等。在长达半个世纪的导演生涯中,洛奇拍摄了许多现实主义佳作,并获奖无数,成为在国际上最有声望的英国导演之一,例如其反映爱尔兰独立运动的影片《风吹麦浪》(2006)和《我是布莱克》(2016)为他先后两次赢得了戛纳电影节金棕榈奖。作为社会活动家,洛奇认为英国政府制定的领取社会福利的严苛规定极具卡夫卡式的荒谬和第22条军规般的自相矛盾,旨在辱没申领者的尊严,迫使他们放弃应得的福利。


  Kenneth Charles Loach is an English director of television and independent film. He is known for his socially critical directing style and for his socialist ideals, which are evident in his film treatment of social issues such as poverty, homelessness and labour rights. Loach’s film Kes(《小孩与鹰》,1969)was voted the seventh greatest British film of the 20th century in a poll by the British Film Institute. Two of his films, The Wind That Shakes the Barley(《风吹麦浪》,2006)and I, Daniel Blake(《我是布莱克》,2016)received the Palme d’O(金棕榈奖)at the Cannes Film Festival, making him the ninth filmmaker to win the award twice. Loach, a social campaigner for most of his career, believes the current criteria for claimingbenefits in the UK are “a Kafka-esque, Catch 22 situation designed to frustrate and humiliate the claimant(申领者) to such an extent that they drop out of the system and stop pursuing their right to ask for support if necessary”.
  洛奇的新作《我是布莱克》自上映以来获得了观众和影评界的赞赏和好评,也斩获了多个重要的国际奖项,例如2016年戛纳电影节金棕榈奖和2016年洛迦诺国际电影节观众选择大奖。《我是布莱克》在票房上也取得了成功,成为50年来洛奇在英国票房最高的影片,在全球获得了1,245万美元的票房收入。影片讲述了木工布莱克(Blake)因心脏病被社区医生断定不适合继续工作但却在申领工作困难补助费时遭到刁难和拒绝而不幸死去的故事,并同时描述了英国单亲妈妈凯蒂(Katie)因贫困而不得不卖身的悲惨景象。影片也因此引发了英国右派(保守党)和左派(工党)政治家对英国福利制度的有关机制(主要是失业和贫困救济方面)的争论。


  I, Daniel Blake became Ken Loach’s biggest success at the UK box office, especially as the film sparked(引發)debate in the country. There has been a wide variety of both praise and criticism of the film from politicians. Former Work and Pensions Secretary Iain Duncan Smith criticised the film for its unfair portrayal of Job centre staff(就业服务中心的工作人员), saying: “This idea that everybody is out to crunch(压碎,打击)you, I think it has really hurt Job centre staff who don’t see themselves as that.” Conversely, Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn(工党领袖科尔宾)appeared at the film’s London premiere(首映式)with the director, then subsequently praised the film on his Facebook page. In a session of Prime Minister’s Questions(首相在下议院接受议员质询的时间)on 2 November 2016, he advised Prime Minister Theresa May(英国首相特蕾莎·梅)to watch the film, as he criticised the fairness of the welfare system.

我是布莱克英文

 

  2.英国的福利制度设计——有关失业和贫困福利申领的规定
  1948年12月10日,成立不久的联合国大会通过了世界人权宣言(Universal Declaration of Human Rights),其中第22项条款规定世界上的每个人作为社会成员拥有社会保障(Social Security)的权利,包括经济、社会和文化方面的权利,尤其是弱势群体(例如儿童、老人、病人和失业者)获取充足食物和住所以及医疗保健的权利。这些权利是个人尊严和自由发展所不可或缺的。当然,这只是联合国对理想人权状态目标的描述,需要国际合作以及每个国家人民的努力才能变成现实。
  Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to(有……的资格)the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity realization. Social security may also refer to the action programs of government intended to promote the welfare of the population through assistance measures guaranteeing access to sufficient resources for food and shelter and to promote health and well-being for the population at large and potentially vulnerable segments such as children, the elderly, the sick and the unemployed.
  英國是西方最早建立福利制度的国家,涵盖了医疗、教育、就业、住房和社会保障各个方面,尤其以“国民保健”制度(免费医疗)著称于世。然而随着人均寿命的延长和老龄化的加剧,英国的福利支出大幅增加,使财政入不敷出。在主张自由市场经济的保守党主政时期,英国政府通常采取紧缩财政支出、减税和削减有关福利的政策来刺激经济增长,使得英国社会的贫富分化加剧,低收入和失业人群的生活水平大幅下降。另外,为防止“福利依赖”症,政府规定福利申领需要经过复杂而漫长的审核评估过程,尤其是对工作困难补助申领和丧失劳动能力救济申领的要求颇为严格。
  The welfare state of the United Kingdom comprises expenditures(支出)by the government intended to improve health, education, employment and social security. Employment and Support Allowance(ESA,工作困难补助费)is the welfare benefit designed to give financial support to people having difficulty finding a job because of a long-term illness or disability, and to help them get back to work despite their disability. The test used to gauge(测量)eligibility(资格)for ESA, the Work Capability Assessment(WCA,工作能力评估), has been strongly criticised over its accuracy and the way the assessments have been carried out. WCA was issued by the British Government’s Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to decide whether jobless welfare claimants are entitled to sickness benefits. A medical assessor(评估者)gives the DWP a description of the claimant’s disabilities and a recommendation on their work capability, after which the claimant is put into one of the three categories:
  * Fit for work
  * Unfit for work but fit for “work-related activity”
  * Unfit for work and unfit for “work-related activity”
  A civil servant(公务员)uses this report, plus any other relevant information they have, to decide on entitlement to Employment and Support Allowance, and on whether a successful claimant will be required to take part in “work-related activity”.

 

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