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英语四级翻译:文化与社会

作者:佚名    文章来源:本站原创    更新时间:2016-12-22

英语四级翻译:文化与社会原文1】
中国政府高度重视保护环境,认为保护环境关系到国家现代化建设的全局和长远发展,是造福当代、惠及子孙的事业。中国政府将环境保护确立为一项基本国策,在推进经济发展的同时,采取一系列措施加强保护环境。特别是近年来,中国政府坚持预防为主、综合治理、全面推进、重点突破,着力解决危害人民群众健康的突出环境问题;坚持创新体制机制,领先科学进步,强化环境法治,发挥社会各方面的积极性。 经过努力,环境污染和生态破坏加剧的趋势减缓,部分流域污染治理初见成效,部分城市和地区环境质量有所改善,全社会保护环境意识进一步增强。


【参考译文1】The Chinese government attaches great importance to environmental protection. It believes that environmental protection has a bearing on the overall situation of China?s modernization drive and its long-term development and that it is an undertaking which will not only benefit the Chinese people of today but also bring benefit to their children and grand children. The Chinese government has established environmental protection as a basic national policy. While promoting economic growth, it has adopted a series of measures to protect the environment. Especially in recent years, adhering to the principle of prevention first, comprehensive control, entire push-on and key-point breakthrough, Chinese government has made great efforts to solve those outstanding environmental problems that threaten people?s health. It has persisted in institutional innovation, relied on technological advances, strengthened the role of law in environmental protection and brought into


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full play the initiative of various sectors of the society. Thanks to these efforts, the trend toward aggravated environmental pollution and ecological destruction has slowed down, pollution control in some river basins has achieved some initial success, the environmental quality of some cities and regions has improved to some extent, and the people?s awareness of the importance of environmental protection has increased further.


【参考译文2】The Chinese government attaches great importance to environmental protection. It believes that environmental protection will have a direct impact on the overall situation of China's modernization drive and its long-term development, and considers environmental protection an undertaking that will not only benefit the Chinese people of today but also their children and grandchildren. Years ago, the Chinese government established environmental protection as a basic national policy and sustainable development as an important strategy, and has adhered to the road of a new type of industrialization. While promoting economic growth, it has adopted a whole array of measures to strengthen environmental protection. Especially in recent years, the Chinese government has adhered to focusing on preventive measures, comprehensive control and overall progress with breakthroughs at some key points, and worked hard to solve conspicuous environmental problems threatening people's health. At the same time, it has continued its efforts for institutional innovation, relied on scientific and technological advances, strengthened the legal system of environmental protection, and brought into full play the initiative of people of all walks of life. Thanks to these efforts, although the amount of resource consumption and pollutants is increasing greatly, the trend toward aggravated environmental pollution and ecological


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destruction is slowing down; especially, environmental pollution control in some river valleys has seen some positive results, the environmental quality of some cities and regions has improved, and the people's awareness of the importance of environmental protection has enhanced.


【评析】

1.“高度重视”除可译为attach great importance to,外,亦可译为set(或put/lay) great/high store by/on?、lay(或put/place) stress on/upon?、give prominence to?和think highly of?。

2. have a bearing on?需牢记,该短语的含义是to have an effect or influence on sth.。

3.“基本国策”的译法basic national/state policy需牢记。
4.“突出(的)”也可以译为salient。

5. “社会各方面”两种译文处理方法不同,均可参考。people of all walks of life系固定搭配。

6. bring sth. into full play系固定搭配,用来翻译“发挥……的积极性”很妥帖。

7. “经过努力”切不可字对字死译,否则必是中式英语。译为Thanks to these efforts,才是准确的译文。

8. “进一步增强”译为??has increased further不如译为?has enhanced简洁、地道。


【原文】
中华民族的传统文化博大精深,源远流长。早在2000多年前,就产生了以孔孟为代表的儒家学说和以老庄为代表的道家学说,以及其他许多也在中国思想史上有地位的学说和学派。这就是有名的诸子百家。从孔夫子到孙中山,中华民族的传统文化有它的许多珍品,许多人民性和民主性的好东西。比如,强调仁爱、强调群体、强调天下为公,特别是“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”的爱国情操和吃苦耐劳、勤俭持家、尊师重教的传统美德。所有这些,对家庭、对国家和社会都起到了巨大的维系和调节作用。


【参考译文】
The traditional Chinese culture, both extensive and profound, starts far back and runs a long, long course. More than 2,000 years ago there emerged in China Confucianism represented by Confucius and Mencius, Taoism, represented by Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi, and many other theories and doctrines that figured prominently in the history of Chinese thought, all being covered by the famous term, "the masters' hundred schools."
From Confucius to Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the traditional Chinese culture presents many precious ideas and qualities, which are essentially populist and democratic. For example, they lay stress on the importance of kindness and love in human relations, on the interest of the community, and on the idea that the world is for all, especially on patriotism as embodied in the saying, "everybody is responsible for the rise or fall of the country;" and long suffering and hard working diligence and frugality in


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household management, and respecting teachers and valuing education. All these have played a great role in binding and regulating the family, the country and the society.

【评析】

1.“中华民族的传统文化博大精深,源远流长。”系典型的主谓结构,再仔细分析,可以做如下转化:“中华民族博大精深的传统文化源远流长。”据此将both extensive and profound作为后置定语译出。整句层次分明,一气呵成。此例具有代表性。

2.“早在2000多年前,就产生了以孔孟为代表的儒家学说和以老庄为代表的道家学说,以及其他许多也在中国思想史上有地位的学说和学派。”这是汉语中典型的“无主句”,翻译时可选用英语中的there +emerge句型译出。

3.“孔子”和“孟子”及后文的“孙中山”皆有定译,绝不可用汉语拼音翻译。

4.“这就是有名的诸子百家。”虽然在原文中系一句话,但在英译文中却可以作为前一句的附加成分,所以处理为all being covered by the famous term, "the masters' hundred schools."。

5. “许多人民性和民主性的好东西”是在描述“许多珍品”的性质,二者决不是并列关系,“人民性”和“民主性”可分别处理为形容词populist和democratic,由于前文已提及“珍品”,所以同义词“好东西”自然可以省略不译。

6. “天下为公”和“天下兴亡,匹夫有责”均为常见熟语,考生对这类熟语的英译应有较多积累。

7. “起到……的作用”可以用play a role/part in doing sth.对译。


【原文】
许多专家认为,教学改革的当务之急是要改变现在的课程设置和考试办法,不要让孩子只知道“头悬梁,锥刺股,死读书,读死书”。他们指出,教育改革的关键在于使全社会认识到中、小学教育的目的不只是让学生掌握必要的知识,更应该提高学生整体素质,特别是他们对于人生意义和社会责任这些根本的问题要有比较深入的思考。学校要在这些方面深入研究,选择合适的内容和方式引导和帮助学生形成正确的观点。如果学校只强调知识教育而忽视了人生课程的引导,那么培养出来的只是一批文字或者数字机器,而不是准备进入社会的预备人才。


【参考译文】
Many experts hold the idea that the highest priority in the reform of education system should be given to the improvement and reform in curriculum and examination system in order to avoid a generation paying undue attention to textbooks. They pointed out that the key of the reform in the education system is a well-shared awareness that the high and primary educations are there, instead of simply offering the knowledge important to the students, to improve the students in an all-round way, and especially to guide them to a careful pondering over such fundamental issues as life itself and social responsibility. As to the schools, they try their best to get a better way to gradually guide the students to an appropriate view over the world around them. An undue emphasis on knowledge-education and the resultant ignorance over the guidance to the students to a proper understanding of life will bring us nothing but a large number of “memorizing machines”. We can never expect a group of young people well prepared for the real social life.


【评析】

1.要想汉译英做得好,掌握一定数量的英语句型必不可少。如开头的“……认为,……”就可以用?hold the idea/view that?或?be of the opinion that?译出,这样译文才会地道。又如第二句“??的当务之急是??”可以用The highest priority in?should be given to?译出。
2.“头悬梁”、“锥刺股”、“死读书”和“读死书”其实说的都是一回事,考生不必绞尽脑汁想如何逐字译出,这在有限的考试时间里并不现实,因此只须吃透意思后用准确、简洁的语言译出即可。paying undue attention to textbooks五个单词就译出了12个字的意思。考生应掌握这种技巧,在备考中有意识地训练。此例有代表性。

3.“引导”自然包涵“帮助”之意,help可略去。

4.“文字或者数字机器”既可直译,亦可译意,参考译文意译为memorizing machines,这更便于理解。


【原文】
太湖明珠无锡,位于江苏省南部,地处美丽富饶的长江三角洲中心地带。这里气候宜人,物产丰富,风景优美,是中国重点风景旅游城市。与万里长城齐名的古京杭大运河纵贯市区,泛舟河上,能领略水乡的民俗风情。
距市区七公里的太湖梅梁景区是太湖风景之精华,碧波万顷,渔帆点点,湖光山色令人陶醉。其中的鼋头渚巨石状如鼋头,远眺烟波浩渺的太湖,被诗人郭沫若誉为“太湖佳绝处”。


【参考译文】
Like a bright pearl set on the Taihu Lake and situated in the center of the beautiful and fertile Changjiang Delta in southern Jiangsu Province, Wuxi  is one of China's major tourist cities, with its pleasant climate, rich natural resources and picturesque scenery. Cutting through the city is the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, an ancient project equal in fame to the Great Wall. A trip along the river will enable the visitor to get to know the customs and life styles of the local people.
Seven kilometers from downtown Wuxi is a popular scenic area known as Meiliang. There, the Taihu Lake is at its best: the vast expanse of blue waters is dotted by fishing boats against an enchanting background of mist-shrouded hills. Of the scenic spots in the area, the huge rock named Yuantouzhu resembles a turtle's head. The rock commands a distant view of the boundless Taihu Lake. It is lauded by Guo Moruo, a renowned Chinese poet, as the "best spot of the Taihu Lake".


【原文】
中国是一个发展中国家,人口多,底子薄,农村地区经济不发达。穷困地区较为集中的西部地区公路、铁路等基础设施比较薄弱。这些地区的教育、卫生等基本社会服务水平低,农业生产条件差。中国政府在全国范围内实施的扶贫开发,极大的缓解了贫困现象。

【参考译文】
China is a developing country with a large population, a meager heritage and an underdeveloped economy in the rural areas. The western region, where most of the poverty-stricken areas are located, has a weak infrastructure such as highways and railways. The level of education, public health and other basic social services is low in these areas. Besides, agricultural production conditions are poor. The Chinese government has implemented nationwide a large-scale program for development-oriented poverty relief, alleviating poverty considerably.

大学英语四级翻译及其解题策略

英语四级翻译:文化与社会
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